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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Human

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Cranberry juice and its impact on peri-stomal skin conditions for urostomy patients

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Tsukada K, Tokunaga K, Iwama T, Mishima Y, Tazawa K, Fujimaki M.
Journal: 
Ostomy Wound Manage 40(9):60-2, 64, 66-8
Abstract: 

In urostomy patients, peristomal skin problems are common and may stem from alkaline urine. Cranberry juice appears to acidify urine and has bacteriostatic properties, and is widely recommended for the reduction of urinary tract infections. Therefore, it is hypothesized that drinking cranberry juice might also prevent and/or improve skin complications for urostomy patients. To test this hypothesis, pH measurements of the skin around the stoma and of the urine of 13 urostomy patients were taken before and after instituting a regimen of drinking 160 to 320 g of cranberry juice each day for an average period of six months. Results showed an improvement in skin condition from 6 patients with erythema, maceration or pseudoepithelial hyperplasia at the beginning of the study to 2 patients with maceration or PEH. The average pH of the urine taken from the patients' pouches decreased a statistically significant amount from 8.0 to 7.3 (p = 0.0277), yet unexpectantly, the average pH of the fresh urine increased a statistically significant amount from 5.8 to 6.2 (p = 0.0178). Other results were not statistically significant. The authors conclude that while drinking cranberry juice did not appear to acidify the urine as expected, improvements were still seen in the skin conditions of the study participants, suggesting that drinking cranberry juice does positively impact the incidence of skin complications for these patients.

Dietary supplementation with cranberry concentrate tablets may increase the risk of nephrolithiasis.

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Terris MK, Issa MM, Tacker JR
Journal: 
Urology 57(1):26-9
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES: Cranberry juice has been recommended for patients with recurrent urinary tract infections. However, cranberry juice has a moderately high concentration of oxalate, a common component of kidney stones, and should be limited in patients with a history of nephrolithiasis. Cranberry concentrate tablets are currently available at nutrition stores and are sold as promoters of urinary tract health. After one of our patients with a distant history of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis developed recurrent stones following self-administration of cranberry concentrate tablets, we sought to investigate the potential lithogenic properties of cranberry supplements.

METHODS: Five healthy volunteers on a normal diet provided 24-hour urine collection for pH, volume, creatinine, oxalate, calcium, phosphate, uric acid, sodium, citrate, magnesium, and potassium. Cranberry tablets were administered to these volunteers at the manufacturer's recommended dosage for 7 days. On the seventh day, a second 24-hour urine collection was obtained.

RESULTS: The urinary oxalate levels in the volunteers significantly increased (P = 0.01) by an average of 43.4% while receiving cranberry tablets. The excretion of potential lithogenic ions calcium, phosphate, and sodium also increased. However, inhibitors of stone formation, magnesium and potassium, rose as well.

CONCLUSIONS: Cranberry concentrate tablets are marketed for urinary tract ailments. Physicians and manufacturers of cranberry products should make an effort to educate patients at risk for nephrolithiasis against ingestion of these dietary supplements.

Effect of cranberry juice consumption on urinary stone risk factors

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Gettman MT, Ogan K, Brinkley LJ, Adams-Huet B, Pak CY, Pearle MS
Journal: 
J Urol 174(2):590-4
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: We evaluated the effect of cranberry juice on urinary stone risk factors.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 12 normal subjects and 12 calcium oxalate stone formers underwent 2, 7-day phases of study in random order while on a controlled metabolic diet. Subjects ingested 1 l of cranberry juice (CBJ) daily in 1 phase and 1 l of deionized water in the other phase. On the last 2 days of each phase 2, 24-hour urine collections and blood samples were obtained for stone risk factors and serum chemistries.

RESULTS: No significant differences were found between normal subjects and stone formers in response to CBJ and, therefore, the groups were combined. CBJ significantly increased urinary calcium (from 154 to 177 mg per day, p =0.0008) and urinary oxalate (from 26.4 to 29.2 mg per day, p =0.04), thereby increasing urinary saturation of calcium oxalate by 18%. Urinary citrate was unchanged and urinary magnesium increased slightly. Urinary pH decreased (from 5.97 to 5.67, p =0.0005), and urinary ammonium, titratable acidity and net acid excretion increased during CBJ ingestion. Urinary uric acid decreased (from 544 to 442 mg per day, p

CONCLUSIONS: CBJ exerts a mixed effect on urinary stone forming propensity. It reduces urinary pH likely by providing an acid load and decreases urinary uric acid perhaps by retarding urate synthesis. Overall CBJ increases the risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation but decreases the risk of brushite stones.

Effect of cranberry juice on bacteriuria in children with neurogenic bladder receiving intermittent catheterization

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Schlager TA, Anderson S, Trudell J, Hendley JO
Journal: 
J Pediatr 135(6):698-702
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cranberry prophylaxis on rates of bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infection in children with neurogenic bladder receiving clean intermittent catheterization.

DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of 15 children receiving cranberry concentrate or placebo concentrate for 6 months (3 months receiving one concentrate, followed by 3 months of the other). Weekly home visits were made. During each visit, a sample of bladder urine was obtained by intermittent catheterization. Signs and symptoms of urinary tract infection and all medications were recorded, and juice containers were counted.

RESULTS: During consumption of cranberry concentrate, the frequency of bacteriuria remained high. Cultures of 75% (114 of 151) of the 151 samples obtained during consumption of placebo were positive for a pathogen (>/=10(4) colony-forming units/mL) compared with 75% (120 of 160) of the 160 samples obtained during consumption of cranberry concentrate. Escherichia coli remained the most common pathogen during placebo and cranberry periods. Three symptomatic infections each occurred during the placebo and cranberry periods. No significant difference was observed in the acidification of urine in the placebo group versus the cranberry group (median, 5.5 and 6.0, respectively).

CONCLUSION: The frequency of bacteriuria in patients with neurogenic bladder receiving intermittent catheterization is 70%; cranberry concentrate had no effect on bacteriuria in this population.

Efficacy of cranberry juice and ascorbic acid in acidifying the urine in multiple sclerosis subjects

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Schultz A
Journal: 
J Community Health Nurs 1(3):159-69
Abstract: 

No abstract - The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of carnberry juice and ascorbic acid in acidifying the urine of subjects with multiple sclerosis.

The effectiveness of dried cranberries ( Vaccinium macrocarpon) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Vidlar A, Vostalova J, Ulrichova J, Student V, Stejskal D, Reichenbach R, Vrbkova J, Ruzicka F, Simanek V.
Journal: 
Br J Nutr 104(8):1181-9
Abstract: 

Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are a common condition in older men. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) powder in men at risk of prostate disease with LUTS, elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA), negative prostate biopsy and clinically confirmed chronic non-bacterial prostatitis. Forty-two participants received either 1500 mg of the dried powdered cranberries per d for 6 months (cranberry group; n 21) or no cranberry treatment (control group; n 21). Physical examination, International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life (QoL), five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5), basic clinical chemistry parameters, haematology, Se, testosterone, PSA (free and total), C-reactive protein (CRP), antioxidant status, transrectal ultrasound prostate volume, urinary flow rate, ultrasound-estimated post-void residual urine volume at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months, and urine ex vivo anti-adherence activity were determined in all subjects. In contrast to the control group, patients in the cranberry group had statistically significant improvement in International Prostate Symptom Score, QoL, urination parameters including voiding parameters (rate of urine flow, average flow, total volume and post-void residual urine volume), and lower total PSA level on day 180 of the study. There was no influence on blood testosterone or serum CRP levels. There was no statistically significant improvement in the control group. The results of the present trial are the first firm evidence that cranberries may ameliorate LUTS, independent of benign prostatic hyperplasia or C-reactive protein level.

Effect of blackcurrant-, cranberry- and plum juice consumption on risk factors associated with kidney stone formation.

Posted: 
November 11, 2010
Authors: 
Kessler T, Jansen B, Hesse A
Journal: 
Eur J Clin Nutr 56:1020-3
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of plum-, cranberry- and blackcurrant juice on urinary stone risk factors.

DESIGN: Investigations were carried out in 12 healthy male subjects aged 18-38 y. All subjects received a standardized diet formulated according to the dietary recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition. The subjects provided 24 h urine collections in a control, three loading phases. In each loading phase a neutral mineral water was substituted for 330 ml of the particular juice.

RESULTS: Cranberry juice decreased the urinary pH, whereas the excretion of oxalic acid and the relative supersaturation for uric acid were increased. Blackcurrant juice increased the urinary pH and the excretion of citric acid. The excretion of oxalic acid was increased too. All changes were statistically significant. The plum juice had no significant effect on the urinary composition.

CONCLUSION: It is concluded that blackcurrant juice could support the treatment and metaphylaxis of uric acid stone disease because of its alkalizing effect. Since cranberry juice acidifies urine it could be useful in the treatment of brushite and struvite stones as well as urinary tract infection.

Cranberry juice for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections: a randomized controlled trial in children

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Ferrara P, Romaniello L, Vitelli O, Gatto A, Serva M and Cataldi L
Journal: 
Scand J Urol Nephrol 43(5):369-72
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: This study compares the effects of daily cranberry juice to those of Lactobacillus in children with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-four girls aged between 3 and 14 years were randomized to cranberry, Lactobacillus or control in three treatment arms: G1, cranberry juice 50 ml daily (n=28); G2, 100 ml of Lactobacillus GG drink on 5 days a month (n=27); and G3, controls (n=29). The study lasted for 6 months.

RESULTS: Only four subjects withdrew: 1/28 (3.5%) from G1, 1/27 (3.7%) from G2 and 2/29 (6.8%) from G3, because of poor compliance to the established protocol. There were 34 episodes of UTIs in this cohort: 5/27 (18.5%) in G1, 11/26 (42.3%) in G2 and 18/27 (48.1%) in the G3, with at least one episode of infection (p

CONCLUSION: These data suggest that daily consumption of concentrated cranberry juice can significantly prevent the recurrence of symptomatic UTIs in children.

Daily cranberry juice for the prevention of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a randomized, controlled pilot study

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Wing DA, Rumney PJ, Preslicka C, Chung JH
Journal: 
J Urol 27(2):137-42
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: We compared the effects of daily cranberry juice cocktail to those of placebo during pregnancy on asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 188 women were randomized to cranberry or placebo in 3 treatment arms of A-cranberry 3 times daily (58), B-cranberry at breakfast then placebo at lunch and dinner (67), and C-placebo 3 times daily (63). After 27.7% (52 of 188) of the subjects were enrolled in the study the dosing regimens were changed to twice daily dosing to improve compliance.RESULTS: There were 27 urinary tract infections in 18 subjects in this cohort, with 6 in 4 group A subjects, 10 in 7 group B subjects and 11 in 7 group C subjects (p = 0.71). There was a 57% and 41% reduction in the frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria and all urinary tract infections, respectively, in the multiple daily dosing group. However, this study was not sufficiently powered at the alpha 0.05 level (CI 0.14-1.39 and 0.22-1.60, respectively, incidence rate ratios). Of 188 subjects 73 (38.8%) withdrew, most for gastrointestinal upset.CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest there may be a protective effect of cranberry ingestion against asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections in pregnancy. Further studies are planned to evaluate this effect.

Does drinking cranberry juice produce urine inhibitory to the development of crystalline, catheter-blocking Proteus mirabilis biofilms?.

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Morris NS, Stickler DJ
Journal: 
BJU Int 88(3):192-7
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To test the recommendation that to avoid the complications of long-term indwelling bladder catheterization (e.g. encrustation and blockage by crystalline Proteus mirabilis biofilms) patients should drink cranberry juice.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urine was collected from groups of volunteers who had drunk up to 2 x 500 mL of cranberry juice or water within an 8-h period. Laboratory models of the catheterized bladder were supplied with urine from these groups and inoculated with P. mirabilis. After incubation for 24 or 48 h, the extent of catheter encrustation was determined by chemical analysis for calcium and magnesium. Encrustation was also visualized by scanning electron microscopy.

RESULTS: The amounts of calcium and magnesium recovered from catheters incubated in urine pooled from individuals who had drunk 500 mL of cranberry juice was not significantly different from that on catheters incubated in pooled urine from control subjects who had drunk 500 mL of water. However, there was significantly less encrustation (P = 0.007) on catheters from models receiving urine from volunteers who had drunk 2 x 500 mL of water than on catheters incubated in models supplied with urine from volunteers who had drunk 2 x 500 mL of cranberry juice. The amounts of encrustation on these two groups of catheters were also significantly less than that on catheters incubated in models supplied with urine from volunteers who had not supplemented their normal fluid intake. (P 10 days.

CONCLUSION: In this in vitro study, drinking cranberry juice did not produce urine that was inhibitory to the development of crystalline catheter-blocking P. mirabilis biofilms. The important factor in preventing catheter encrustation is a high fluid intake.

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