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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Human

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Effect of cranberry juice on urine

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Kahn HD, Panariello VA, Saeli J, Sampson JR, Schwartz E
Journal: 
J Am Diet Assoc 51(3):251-4
Abstract: 

The purpose of this study was to quantitate the effect of cranberry juice ingestion on urinary acidification and calcium excretion, in a diet-controlled situation.

Effect of diet on serum accumulation and renal excretion of aryl acids and secretory activity in normal and uremic man

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Cathcart-Rake W, Porter R, Whittier F, Stein P, Carey M, Grantham J
Journal: 
Am J Clin Nutr 28(10):1110-5
Abstract: 

The influence of diet on aryl acid metabolism was determined in normal and azotemic subjects. Aryl acid content of serum and urine was estimated by fluorometry in relation to hippuric acid as a standard (FI-Hipp). Secretory activity, a reflection of the biological potency of aromatic acids in serum and urine, was determined by bioassay. The urinary excretion of FI-Hipp and secretory activity of five normal persons on an ad lib diet was 0.78 and 2.25 mM/day, respectively; similar values were observed in two subjects with chronic renal insufficiency. Subjects were fed prunes and cranberries, since these foods contain abundant quantities of hippurate precursors. Prunes 1.5 g/kg body weight, caused the urinary excretion of both FI-Hipp and secretory activity to increase about tenfold in normal and azotemic subjects. Prune feeding caused the serum levels of FI-Hipp and secretory activity to increase about threefold. Cranberries increased the renal excretion of FI-Hipp and secretory activity as did the ingestion of a beverage containing benzoate as a preservative. On the basis of these studies it is clear that diet is an important determinant of the load of aryl acids for urinary excretion; in patients with renal insufficiency the ingestion of foods containing precursors may cause serum level of biologically active aryl acids to increase strikingly.

New support for a folk remedy: cranberry juice reduces bacteriuria and pyuria in elderly women

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Fleet JC
Journal: 
Nutr Rev 52(5):168-70
Abstract: 

Cranberry juice has developed a following as a simple, nonpharmacologic means to reduce or treat urinary tract infections, yet the scientific basis for such a claim has been lacking. A new study suggests that bacterial infections (bacteriuria) and associated influx of white blood cells into the urine (pyuria) can be reduced by nearly 50% in elderly women who drink 300 mL of cranberry juice cocktail each day over the course of a 6-month study. The results of this study suggest that consumption of cranberry juice is more effective in treating than preventing bacteriuria and pyuria. Along with earlier reports on the ability of cranberry juice to inhibit bacterial adherence to urinary epithelial cells in cell culture, this new work suggests that drinking cranberry juice each day may be clinically useful. Additional work must be conducted, however, to more completely define the efficacy of cranberry juice.

Novel concentrated cranberry liquid blend, UTI-STAT with Proantinox, might help prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in women

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Efros M, Bromberg W, Cossu L, Nakeleski E, Katz AE
Journal: 
Urology 76(4):841-5
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES: To determine the safety, tolerability, maximal tolerated dose, and efficacy of a concentrated cranberry liquid blend, UTI-STAT with Proantinox, in female patients with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs).

METHODS: The study agent was administered orally at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 mL daily for 12 weeks to women with a history of 2.78 ± 0.73 rUTIs

RESULTS: A total of 28 subjects were included in the study. Of these 28 women, the data from 23 were analyzable. The average age was 46.5 ± 12.8 years. The maximal tolerated dose of UTI-STAT was 75 mL/d, and the recommended dose was set at 60 mL/d. The secondary endpoints demonstrated that only 2 (9.1%) of 23 reported a rUTI, a markedly better rate than the historical data. At 12 weeks, the reduction in worry about rUTIs and increased QOL with regard to the physical functioning domain and role limitations from physical health domain, as measured by the Medical Outcomes Study short-form 36-item questionnaire, were significant (P = .0097). A lower American Urological Association Symptom Index indicating greater QOL was also significant (P = .045).

CONCLUSIONS: The novel concentrated cranberry liquid blend showed a good safety profile and tolerability in both pre- and postmenopausal women with history of rUTIs. The secondary endpoints demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing the incidence of rUTI and increasing QOL. Given this evidence, supplementation might be beneficial in the prevention of rUTIs in this population.

The effect of cranberry juice on the presence of bacteria and white blood cells in the urine of elderly women. What is the role of bacterial adhesion?

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Avorn J
Journal: 
Adv Exp Med Biol 408:185-6

The effect of water, ascorbic acid, and cranberry derived supplementation on human urine and uropathogen adhesion to silicone rubber.

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Habash MB, Van der Mei HC, Busscher HJ, Reid G
Journal: 
Can J Microbiol 45(8):691-4
Abstract: 

In this study, urine was collected from groups of volunteers following the consumption of water, ascorbic acid, or cranberry supplements. Only ascorbic acid intake consistently produced acidic urine. Photospectroscopy data indicated that increased water consumption produced urine with lower protein content. Surface tension measurements of the collected urine showed that both water and cranberry supplementation consistently produced urine with surface tensions higher than the control or urine collected following ascorbic acid intake. These urine samples were also employed to study uropathogen adhesion to silicone rubber in a parallel plate flow chamber. Urine obtained after ascorbic acid or cranberry supplementation reduced the initial deposition rates and numbers of adherent Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis, but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, or Candida albicans. Conversely, urine obtained from subjects with increased water intake vastly increased the initial deposition rates and numbers of adherent E. coli and E. faecalis (P

Efficacy of cranberry in prevention of urinary tract infection in a susceptible pediatric population

Posted: 
November 16, 2010
Authors: 
Foda MM, Middlebrook PF, Gatfield CT, Potvin G, Wells G, Schillinger JF
Journal: 
Can J Urol 2(1):98-102
Abstract: 

The objective of the study was to evaluate liquid cranberry products as prophylaxis against bacterial urinary tract infection in a pediatric neuropathic bladder population. Forty cases managed by clean intermittent catheterization with or without pharmacotherapy were enrolled in a randomized single-blind cross-over study. Subjects ingested 15 mL/kg/day of cranberry cocktail or water for six months followed by the reverse for another six months. Initial catheter urine samples and subsequent monthly and interim cultures were obtained. Associated symptoms were recorded along with follow-up attendance/compliance registry. The number of negative culture months to the number of months contributed was tabulated and compared between interventions. Individual, cumulative and antimicrobial subset analysis was performed. Twenty one patients completed the study;12 dropped out for reasons related to the cranberry (taste, caloric load and cost); seven patients dropped out for other reasons (parents too busy, death, no stated reason). Wilcoxon matched-pairs Signed-ranks analysis revealed no difference between intervention periods (2-tailed P=.5566 [whole group]; p=.2845 [antimicrobial subset]) with respect to infection. Fewer infections were observed in nine patients taking cranberry juice and in nine patients given water; no difference was noted in three. Liquid cranberry products, on a daily basis, at the dosage employed, did not have any effect greater than that of water in preventing urinary tract infections in this pediatric neuropathic bladder population.

Cranberry juice consumption may reduce biofilms on uroepithelial cells: pilot study in spinal cord injured patients

Posted: 
November 15, 2010
Authors: 
Reid G, Hsiehl J, Potter P, Mighton J, Lam D, Warren D and Stephenson J
Journal: 
Spinal Cord 39(1):26-30
Abstract: 

STUDY DESIGN: A pilot study of 15 spinal cord injured patients. Objective: To determine whether alteration of fluid intake and use of cranberry juice altered the bacterial biofilm load in the bladder. SETTING: London, Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Urine samples were collected on day 0 (start of study), on day 7 following each patient taking one glass of water three times daily in addition to normal diet, and on day 15 following each patient taking one glass of cranberry juice thrice daily. One urine sample was sent for culture and a second processed to harvest, examine by light microscopy and Gram stain non-squamous uroepithelial cells to generate bacterial adhesion per 50 cells data. RESULTS: The results showed that cranberry juice intake significantly reduced the biofilm load compared to baseline (P=0.013). This was due to a reduction in adhesion of Gram negative (P=0.054) and Gram positive (P=0.022) bacteria to cells. Water intake did not significantly reduce the bacterial adhesion or biofilm presence. CONCLUSION: The findings provide evidence in support of further, larger clinical trials into the use of functional foods, particularly cranberry juice, to reduce the risk of UTI in a patient population highly susceptible to morbidity and mortality associated with drug resistant uropathogens

Lack of effect of ascorbic acid, hippuric acid, and methenamine (urinary formaldehyde) on the copper-reduction glucose test in geriatric patients

Posted: 
November 15, 2010
Authors: 
Nahata MC, McLeod DC
Journal: 
J Am Geriatr Soc 28(5):230-3
Abstract: 

Ascorbic acid and hippuric acid (from cranberry juice) are commonly used to acidify the urine for the purpose of enhancing the degradation of therapeutic methenamine mandelate to urinary formaldehyde. A study was made of 27 nondiabetic geriatric patients with indwelling Foley catheters and chronic bacteriuria who were treated with methenamine mandelate (4 gm), ascorbic acid (4 gm), and cranberry cocktail (1 liter) daily. All of 972 urine samples showed formaldehyde in mean concentrations between 14 and 25 microgram/ml. No glucose was found when the urine was tested by the copper-reduction method. In vitro false positive reactions reported in the literature do not appear to be duplicated as an in vivo problem.

A randomised trial of cranberry versus apple juice in the management of urinary symptoms during external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Campbell G, Pickles T, D'yachkova Y
Journal: 
Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 15(6):322-8
Abstract: 

AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess whether the oral intake of cranberry juice cocktail compared with apple juice was associated with a significant difference in urinary symptoms experienced during radical external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate carcinoma.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twelve men with prostate cancer were randomised to either 354 ml cranberry juice or apple juice a day. Stratification was based on a history of a previous transurethral resection of prostate (TURP yes/no) and baseline International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS or = 6) of urinary symptoms.

RESULTS: The maximum IPSS (MRT) and the maximum change in IPSS from baseline (DRT) are used to report the results. We analysed the effects of juice allocation on DRT and MRT using analysis of covariates (ANCOVA). We observed no significant difference for DRT (P = 0.39) or MRT (P = 0.76) related to the consumption of cranberry compared with apple juice. However, we found a significant relationship between the history of a previous TURP and both DRT (P = 0.01) and MRT (P = 0.01). The history of a previous TURP was associated with lower values for both end points. Baseline IPSS was significant for DRT (P = 0.004) and MRT (P or = 6 cut point on MRT (P

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows no significant difference in the urinary symptoms experienced during EBRT related to the consumption of cranberry juice compared with apple juice.

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