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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Human

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Cranberry fruit powder (Flowens™)improves lower urinary tract symptoms in men: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Vidlar A, Student Jr V, Vostalova J, Fromentin E, Roller M, Simanek V, Student V
Journal: 
World J Urol DOI 10.1007/s00345-015-1611-7
Abstract: 

Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia increase with age. To date, several medications are available to treat LUTS, including herbal remedies which offer less side effects but lack robust efficacy studies.
This 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study aimed at evaluating the dose effect of 250 or 500 mg cranberry powder (Flowens™) on LUTS and uroflowmetry in men over the age of 45. A total of 124 volunteers with PSA levels After 6 months, subjects in both Flowens™ groups had a lower IPSS (-3.1 and -4.1 in the 250- and 500-mg groups, p = 0.05 and p Flowens™ showed a clinically relevant, dose-dependent, and significant reduction in LUTS in men over 45.

Cranberry juice capsules and urinary tract infection after surgery: results of a randomized trial

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Foxman B, Cronenwett AE, Spino C, Berger MB, Morgan DM
Journal: 
Am J Obstet Gynecol 213(2):194.e1-8
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: The risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) among women undergoing elective gynecological surgery during which a catheter is placed is high: 10-64% following catheter removal. We conducted the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the therapeutic efficacy of cranberry juice capsules in preventing UTI after surgery.
STUDY DESIGN: We recruited patients from a single hospital between August 2011 and January 2013. Eligible participants were undergoing elective gynecological surgery that did not involve a fistula repair or vaginal mesh removal. One hundred sixty patients were randomized and received 2 cranberry juice capsules 2 times a day, equivalent to 2 8 ounce servings of cranberry juice, for 6 weeks after surgery or matching placebo. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants who experienced clinically diagnosed and treated UTI with or without positive urine culture. Kaplan-Meier plots and log rank tests compared the 2 treatment groups.
RESULTS: The occurrence of UTI was significantly lower in the cranberry treatment group compared with the placebo group (15 of 80 [19%] vs 30 of 80 [38%]; odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.79; P = .008). After adjustment for known confounders, including the frequency of intermittent self-catheterization in the postoperative period, the protective effects of cranberry remained (odds ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.94). There were no treatment differences in the incidence of adverse events, including gastrointestinal upset (56% vs 61% for cranberry vs placebo).
CONCLUSION: Among women undergoing elective benign gynecological surgery involving urinary catheterization, the use of cranberry extract capsules during the postoperative period reduced the rate of UTI by half.

Cranberry supplementation in the prevention of non-severe lower urinary tract infections: a pilot study.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Ledda A, Bottari A, Luzzi R, Belcaro G, Hu S, Dugall M, Hosoi M, Ippolito E, Corsi M, Gizzi G, Morazzoni P, Riva A, Giacomelli L, Togni S
Journal: 
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 19(1):77-80,
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: Cranberry extracts have been tested as a nutritional supplementation in the prevention of recurrent lower-urinary tract infections (R-UTIs), with mixed results. This pilot, registry study evaluates the prophylactic effects of oral supplementation with a new well-standardized cranberry extract in patients with R-UTI, over a 2-month follow-up.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: All subjects were suggested to take one capsule containing a cranberry extract (AnthocranTM) for 60 days and were also given lifestyle advice. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients on cranberry extracts and those who don't take this supplementation.
RESULTS: In total, 22 subjects completed the study in each of the two groups. In the cranberry group, the reduction in the frequency of UTI episodes during the study period compared with the two months before the inclusion was 73.3% (p CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results, obtained in a field-practice setting, indicates the effectiveness and safety of a well-standardized cranberry extract in the prevention of R-UTI.

Standardized cranberry capsules for radiation cystitis in prostate cancer patients in New Zealand: a randomized double blinded, placebo controlled pilot study

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Hamilton K, Bennett NC, Purdie G, Herst PM
Journal: 
Support Care Cancer 23(1):95-102
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: Acute radiation cystitis, inflammation of the bladder, is a common side effect in men receiving external beam radiation for prostate cancer. Although several treatments provide symptomatic relief, there is no effective treatment to prevent or treat radiation cystitis. Cranberry products have been associated with urinary tract health. This study aimed to determine the effect of highly standardized cranberry capsules (containing 72 mg proanthocyanidins [PACS]) compared with that of placebo capsules on the incidence and severity of radiation cystitis.
METHODS: Forty-one men with prostate cancer participated in a double blinded randomized placebo controlled study. Men took one capsule a day at breakfast during treatment and for 2 weeks after treatment completion. Severity of urinary symptoms and the bother these caused were measured using the individual items of the urinary domain of the Modified Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC).
RESULTS: The incidence of cystitis was lower in men taking cranberry capsules (65%) compared with those that took placebo capsules (90%) (p=0.058); severe cystitis was seen in 30% of men in the cranberry arm and 45% in the placebo arm (p=0.30). Overall, the incidence of pain/burning was significantly lower in the cranberry cohort (p=0.045). Men on the low hydration regimen who took cranberry had less pain/burning (p=0.038), stronger urine steam (p=0.030) and used significantly fewer pads/liners (p=0.042), which was significantly different from those on the high hydration regimen (p=0.028).
CONCLUSION: Men receiving radiation therapy for prostate cancer may benefit from using cranberry capsules, particularly those on low hydration regimens or with baseline urinary symptoms.

Cranberry versus placebo in the prevention of urinary infections in multiple sclerosis: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Gallien P, Amarenco G, Benoit N, Bonniaud V, Donzé C, Kerdraon J, de Seze M, Denys P, Renault A, Naudet F, Reymann JM.
Journal: 
Mult Scler 20(9):1252-1259.
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the usefulness of cranberry extract in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients suffering from urinary disorders.
METHODS: In total, 171 adult MS outpatients with urinary disorders presenting at eight centers were randomized (stratification according to center and use of clean intermittent self-catheterization) to cranberry versus placebo in a 1-year,
prospective, double-blind study that was analyzed using a sequential method on an intent-to-treat basis. An independent monitoring board analyzed the results of the analyses each time 40 patients were assessed on the main endpoint. Cranberry extract (36 mg proanthocyanidins per day) or a matching placebo was taken by participants twice daily for 1 year. The primary endpoint was the time to first symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), subject to validation by a validation committee.
RESULTS: The second sequential analyses allowed us to accept the null hypothesis (no difference between cranberry and placebo). There was no difference in time to first symptomatic UTI distribution across 1 year, with an estimated hazard ratio
of 0.99, 95% CI [0.61, 1.60] (p = 0.97). Secondary endpoints and tolerance did not differ between groups.
CONCLUSION: Taking cranberry extract versus placebo twice a day did not prevent UTI occurrence in MS patients with urinary disorders. Trial Registration NCT00280592.

Effectiveness of an association of a cranberry dry extract, D-mannose, and the two microorganisms actobacillus plantarum LP01 and actobacillus paracasei LPC09 in women affected by cystitis: a pilot study.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Vicariotto F
Journal: 
J Clin Gastroenterol 48 Suppl 1:S96-101.
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infection in women. Most UTIs are acute uncomplicated cystitis caused by Escherichia coli (86%). This study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of an association of a cranberry dry extract, D-mannose, a gelling complex composed of the exopolysaccharides produced by Streptococcus thermophilus ST10 (DSM 25246) and tara gum, as well as the 2 microorganisms Lactobacillus plantarum LP01 (LMG P-21021) and Lactobacillus paracasei LPC09 (DSM 24243) in women affected by acute uncomplicated cystitis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three premenopausal, nonpregnant women diagnosed with acute uncomplicated cystitis were enrolled in a pilot prospective study and
completed the treatment protocol. Subjects were instructed to take 2 doses per day during the first month, and then to continue with 1 sachet per day until the sixtieth day. Nitrites and leukocyte esterase on urine dipstick testing were used
as indicators of cystitis, with analysis performed at enrollment, after 30 and 60 days, and after 1 month of follow-up. Typical UTI symptoms, namely dysuria, frequent voiding of small volumes, urinary urgency, suprapubic pain, and gross
hematuria were scored 0 to 3 and evaluated at each visit.
RESULTS: Positive results for the presence of nitrites and leukocyte esterase were found in 14 and 20 subjects after 30 days and in 9 and 14 women after 60 days, respectively (P results for nitrites and leukocyte esterase were recorded in only 4 and 3 of 24 and 19 subjects (16.7%, P=0.103; 15.8%, P=0.325, respectively), with negative results after 60 days. Typical symptoms of cystitis, specifically dysuria, frequent voiding, urgency, and suprapubic pain were significantly improved as well. No significant differences were recorded in the incidence and severity of hematuria at any visit.
CONCLUSION: The long-term ability of an association of cranberry, D-mannose, an innovative gelling complex, and the 2 microorganisms tested to significantly improve the uncomfortable symptoms reported by women with acute cystitis has been suggested.

Efficient and cost-effective alternative treatment for recurrent urinary tract infections and interstitial cystitis in women: a two-case report.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Mansour A, Hariri E, Shelh S, Irani R, Mroueh M
Journal: 
Case Rep Med 2014:698758.
Abstract: 

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. UTIs are primarily caused by Escherichia coli, which increases the likelihood of a recurrent infection. We encountered two cases of recurrent
UTIs (rUTIs) with a positive E. coli culture, not improving with antibiotics due to the development of antibiotic resistance. An alternative therapeutic regimen based on parsley and garlic, L-arginine, probiotics, and cranberry tablets has been given. This regimen showed a significant health improvement and symptoms relief without recurrence for more than 12 months. In conclusion, the case supports the concept of using alternative medicine in treating rUTI and as a prophylaxis or in patients who had developed antibiotic resistance.

Evaluation of the effect of cranberry juice on symptoms associated with a urinary tract infection.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Bass-Ware A, Weed D, Johnson T, Spurlock A.
Journal: 
Urol Nurs 34(3):121-7
Abstract: 

The purpose of this research was to correlate daily consumption of cranberry juice and symptoms of a diagnosed UTI among 26 volunteer adult female patients

Cost-effectiveness of cranberries vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections in premenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Bosmans JE, Beerepoot MA, Prins JM, ter Riet G, Geerlings SE
Journal: 
PLoS ONE 9(4):e91939
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and result in an enormous economic burden. The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic agents to prevent UTIs.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cranberry prophylaxis compared to antibiotic prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) over a 12 month period in premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: An economic evaluation was performed alongside a randomized trial. Primary outcome was the number of UTIs during 12 months. Secondary outcomes included satisfaction and quality of life. Healthcare utilization was measured using questionnaires. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputation. Bootstrapping was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the treatments.

RESULTS: Cranberry prophylaxis was less effective than TMP-SMX prophylaxis, but the differences in clinical outcomes were not statistically significant. Costs after 12 months in the cranberry group were statistically significantly higher than in the TMP-SMX group (mean difference 249, 95% confidence interval 70 to 516). Cost-effectiveness planes and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that cranberry prophylaxis to prevent UTIs is less effective and more expensive than (dominated by) TMP-SMX prophylaxis.

CONCLUSION: In premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs, cranberry prophylaxis is not cost-effective compared to TMP-SMX prophylaxis. However, it was not possible to take into account costs attributed to increased antibiotic resistance within the framework of this randomized trial; modeling studies are recommended to investigate these costs. Moreover, although we based the dosage of cranberry extract on available evidence, this may not be the optimal dosage. Results may change when this optimal dosage is identified.

Cost-effectiveness of cranberry capsules to prevent urinary tract infection in long-term care facilities: economic evaluation with a randomized controlled trial.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Hout WB van den, Caljouw MAA, Putter H, Cools HJM, Gussekloo J
Journal: 
J Am Geriatr Soc 62(1):111-16
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the preventive use of cranberry capsules in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents is cost-effective depending on urinary tract infection (UTI) risk. DESIGN: Economic evaluation with a randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Long-term care facilities. PARTICIPANTS: LTCF residents (N=928, 703 female, median age 84), stratified according to UTI risk. MEASUREMENTS: UTI incidence (clinically or strictly defined), survival, quality of life, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs. RESULTS: In the weeks after a clinical UTI, participants showed a significant but moderate deterioration in quality of life, survival, care dependency, and costs. In high-UTI-risk participants, cranberry costs were estimated at Euro 439 per year (1.00 euro=1.37 U.S. dollar), which is Euro 3,800 per prevented clinically defined UTI (95% confidence interval=Euro 1,300-infinity). Using the strict UTI definition, the use of cranberry increased costs without preventing UTIs. Taking cranberry capsules had a 22% probability of being cost-effective compared with placebo (at a willingness to pay of Euro 40,000 per QALY). In low-UTI-risk participants, use of cranberry capsules was only 3% likely to be cost-effective. CONCLUSION: In high-UTI-risk residents, taking cranberry capsules may be effective in preventing UTIs but is not likely to be cost-effective in the investigated dosage, frequency, and setting. In low-UTI-risk LTCF residents, taking cranberry capsules twice daily is neither effective nor cost-effective.

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