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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Human

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Comparison of the anti-adhesion activity of three different cranberry extracts on uropathogenic P-fimbriated Escherichia coli: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, ex vivo, acute study

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Howell A, Souza D, Roller M, Fromentin E
Journal: 
Nat Prod Commun 10(7):1215-8
Abstract: 

Research suggests that cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) helps maintain urinary tract health. Bacterial adhesion to the uroepithelium is the initial step in the progression to development of a urinary tract infection. The bacterial anti-adhesion activity of cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) has been demonstrated in vitro. Three different cranberry extracts were developed containing a standardized level of 36 mg of PACs. This randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, ex vivo, acute study was designed to compare the anti-adhesion activity exhibited by human urine following consumption of three different cranberry extracts on uropathogenic P-fimbriated Escherichia coli in healthy men and women. All three cranberry extracts significantly increased anti-adhesion activity in urine. from 6 to 12 hours after intake of a single dose standardized to deliver 36 mg of PACs (as measured by the BL-DMAC method), versus placebo.

Cranberry Products for the Prophylaxis of Urinary Tract Infections in Pediatric Patients.

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Durham SH, Stamm PL, Eiland LS
Journal: 
Ann Pharmacother 49(12):1349-56
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the existing data regarding the use of cranberry products for the prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pediatric patients.
DATA SOURCES: A literature search of Medline databases from 1966 to June 2015 was conducted.
STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: The databases were searched using the terms ""pediatrics,"" ""children,"" ""cranberry,"" ""cranberry juice,"" and ""urinary tract infections."" The identified trials were then searched for additional references applicable to this topic.
DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 8 clinical trials were identified that examined the use of cranberry products, mostly juice, for the prevention of UTIs in children. Three trials examined the use in otherwise healthy children. Five trials examined the use in pediatric patients with underlying urogenital abnormalities of which 2 compared cranberry to antibiotics. In healthy pediatric patients, cranberry use was associated with a reduction in the overall number of UTIs and a decrease in the number of antibiotic days per year for UTI treatment. In patients with urogenital abnormalities, results were conflicting, with some studies showing no reduction in UTIs compared with placebo, but others demonstrating a significant reduction. However, cranberry products had similar efficacy when compared with both cefaclor and trimethoprim. All studies used a wide variety of doses and frequencies of cranberry, making specific product recommendations difficult.
CONCLUSIONS: Cranberry appears effective for the prevention of UTIs in otherwise healthy children and is at least as effective as antibiotics in children with underlying urogenital abnormalities. However, recommendations for cranberry dosing and frequency cannot be confidently made at this time. Larger, well-designed trials are recommended.

Efficacy and safety profile of cranberry in infants and children with recurrent urinary tract infection

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Fernandez-Puentes V, Uberos J, Rodriguez-Belmonte R, Nogueras-Ocana M, Blanca-Jover E, Narbona-Lopez E
Journal: 
An Pediatr (Barc) 82(6):397-403
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: Cranberry prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection in infants has proven effective in the experimental model of the adult. There are few data on its efficacy, safety and recommended dose in the pediatric population.
METHODS: A controlled, double-blind Phase III clinical trial was conducted on children older than 1 month of age to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cranberry in recurrent urinary tract infection. The assumption was of the non-inferiority of cranberry versus trimethoprim. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan Meier analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 85 patients under 1 year of age and 107 over 1 year were recruited. Trimethoprim was prescribed to 75 patients and 117 received cranberry. The cumulative rate of urinary infection associated with cranberry prophylaxis in children under 1 year was 46% (95% CI; 23-70) in children and 17% (95% CI; 0-38) in girls, effectively at doses inferior to trimethoprim. In children over 1 year-old cranberry was not inferior to trimethoprim, with a cumulative rate of urine infection of 26% (95% CI; 12-41). The cranberry was well tolerated and with no new adverse effects.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that cranberry is safe and effective in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection in infants and children. With the doses used, their efficiency is not less than that observed for trimethoprim among those over 1 year-old. (Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN16968287).

In Vivo Consumption of Cranberry Exerts ex Vivo Antiadhesive Activity against FimH-Dominated Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: A Combined in Vivo, ex Vivo, and in Vitro Study of an Extract from Vaccinium macrocarpon.

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Rafsanjany N, Senker J, Brandt S, Dobrindt U, Hensel A
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 63(40):8804-18
Abstract: 

For investigation of the molecular interaction of cranberry extract with adhesins of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), urine from four volunteers consuming standardized cranberry extract (proanthocyanidin content = 1.24%) was analyzed within ex vivo experiments, indicating time-dependent significant inhibition of 40-50% of bacterial adhesion of UPEC strain NU14 to human T24 bladder cells. Under in vitro conditions a dose-dependent increase in bacterial adhesion was observed with proanthocyanidin-enriched cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon extract (proanthocyanidin content = 21%). Confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy proved that V.m. extract led to the formation of bacterial clusters on the outer plasma membrane of the host cells without subsequent internalization. This agglomerating activity was not observed when a PAC-depleted extract (V.m. extract(PAC)) was used, which showed significant inhibition of bacterial adhesion in cases where type 1 fimbriae dominated and mannose-sensitive UPEC strain NU14 was used. V.m. extract(PAC) had no inhibitory activity against P- and F1C-fimbriae dominated strain 2980. Quantitative gene expression analysis indicated that PAC-containing as well as PAC-depleted cranberry extracts increased the fimH expression in NU14 as part of a feedback mechanism after blocking FimH. For strain 2980 the PAC-containing extract led to up-regulation of P- and F1C-fimbriae, whereas the PAC-depleted extract had no influence on gene expression. V.m. and V.m. extract(PAC) did not influence biofilm and curli formation in UPEC strains NU14 and 2980. These data lead to the conclusion that also proanthocyanidin-free cranberry extracts exert antiadhesive activity by interaction with mannose-sensitive type 1 fimbriae of UPEC.

Phenolic Acid Content and Antiadherence Activity in the Urine of Patients Treated with Cranberry Syrup (Vaccinium Macrocarpon) vs. Trimethoprim for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection.

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Uberos J, Rodriguez-Belmonte R, Rodriguez-Perez C, Molina-Oya M, Blanca-Jover E, Narbona-Lopez E, Munoz-Hoyos, A
Journal: 
J Funct Food 18(Part A):608-616.
Abstract: 

The effectiveness of cranberry in the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) has been associated with its polyphenol content, particularly proanthocyanidins (PACs) and the inhibition of adherence of Escherichia coli to the uroepithelium. This paper describes a controlled, double blind, clinical trial of children aged over one month with recurrent urinary tract infection. The study aims were to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cranberry syrup in children and to investigate the relationship between the excretion of phenolic acids in urine with the antiadherent activity of cranberry syrup. In the study population, cranberry syrup was found to be similar to trimethoprim, with a rate of UTI (reinfection) of 26% (95% CI 12-41). The administration of cranberry syrup was associated with high levels of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids in urine; in both cases these molecules present activity in the biofilm inhibition or reduction of surface hydrophobicity of E. coli (Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN16968287).

Pilot Study to Evaluate Compliance and Tolerability of Cranberry Capsules in Pregnancy for the Prevention of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Wing DA, Rumney PJ, Hindra S, Guzman L, Le J, Nageotte M
Journal: 
J Altern Complement Med 21(11):700-6
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the compliance with and tolerability of daily cranberry capsule ingestion for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) prevention in pregnancy.
DESIGN: A total of 49 pregnant women from two sites were randomly assigned to cranberry or matching placebo, two doses daily, at gestational ages less than 16 weeks. Patients were followed monthly for urinary tract infection until delivery. Up to seven monthly visits were scheduled for each patient. Delivery data were evaluated.
RESULTS: Of 38 evaluable patients, the mean compliance rate over the study period was 82% (range, 20%-100%). This compliance rate and the 74% of patients achieving good (>75%) compliance were similar between those who received cranberry capsules and placebo. Compliance evaluation revealed that most patients stopped capsule consumption after 34-38 weeks of participation. Multivariate logistic regression and longitudinal analysis showed a significant interaction time effect with cranberry treatment. However, cranberry consumption was not a significant predictor of gastrointestinal intolerance or study withdrawal. Although 30% of patients withdrew for various reasons, only 1 withdrew because of intolerance to the cranberry capsules. Loss to follow-up was mostly due to provider change (9 of 49 [18%]) and therapy disinterest (4 of 49 [8%]). Seven cases of ASB occurred in 5 patients: 2 of 24 (8%) in the cranberry group and 3 of 25 (12%) in the placebo group. No cases of cystitis or pyelonephritis were observed.
CONCLUSION: One third of pregnant women could not complete the study protocol for various reasons. Compliance with and tolerability of cranberry capsule ingestion appear good; these capsules provide a potentially effective means to prevent ASB in pregnancy. Further studies with large samples are necessary to confirm the findings.

A 1H NMR-based approach to investigate metabolomic differences in the plasma and urine of young women after cranberry juice or apple juice consumption.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Liu HY, Tayyari F, Khoo C, Gu LW
Journal: 
J Funct Food 14:76-86
Abstract: 

The overall metabolic changes caused by cranberry juice or apple juice consumption using a global 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach were investigated. Eighteen female college students were given either cranberry or apple juice for three days using a cross-over design. Plasma and urine samples were collected and analyzed using 1H NMR-based metabolomics followed by multivariate analyses. No metabolic difference was observed in plasma before and after juice consumption. However, metabolome in plasma and urine after cranberry juice consumption were different from those after apple juice consumption. Cranberry juice consumption caused a greater increase in urinary excretion of hippuric acid and a higher level of citric acid in the plasma. Furthermore, cranberry juice decreased the plasma level of lactate, D-glucose, and two unidentified metabolites compared to apple juice consumption. The metabolomic changes caused by cranberry juice consumption may help to explain its reported health benefits.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the bacterial anti-adhesion effects of cranberry extract beverages

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Kaspar KL, Howell AB, Khoo C
Journal: 
Food Funct 6(4):1212-7
Abstract: 

In this study, we examined the ex vivo urinary anti-adhesion activity of low-calorie cranberry extract beverages in both a pilot study (n = 10) and a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial (n = 59). In the pilot study, subjects consumed a cranberry extract beverage (CEB) or a cranberry extract and juice beverage (CEJB), compared to placebo. Both cranberry beverages utilized a standardized cranberry extract powder at a level equivalent to low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (LCJC) on a PAC content basis. Clean-catch urine samples collected at baseline and post intervention were tested for anti-adhesion activity utilizing a mannose-resistant human red blood cell hemagglutination assay specific for P-fimbriated E. coli. Results from the pilot study indicated that ex vivo anti-adhesion activity for both cranberry treatments were higher (p < 0.05) than placebo. In the clinical trial, we compared CEJB to LCJC and a placebo beverage. Post-consumption urine from both cranberry treatment groups showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) anti-adhesion activity compared to placebo. There were no differences observed in anti-adhesion activity between CJEB and LCJC, indicating similar bioactivity. Therefore, acute beverage consumption of cranberry extract and/or juice provides ex vivo anti-adhesion activity, which may help to improve urinary tract health.

American cranberry (proanthocyanidin 120 mg): its value for the prevention of urinary tracts infections after ureteral catheter placement.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Barnoiu OS, Sequeira-Garcia Del Moral J, Sanchez-Martinez N, Diaz-Molina P, Flores-Sirvent L, Baena-Gonzalez V
Journal: 
Actas Urol Esp 39(2):112-7
Abstract: 

INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is among the most frequent complications after urinary tract surgical procedures, mainly when catheter placement is necessary. Although the use of American cranberry has been related with a reduced risk of UTI, there is no study reporting the value of its prevention effect against catheter-associated urinary tract infections.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective trial comparing UTI rate (positive urine culture) among 31 patients with double J catheter (JJ) and adding American cranberry (120 mg) in routine prophylactic therapy, and 31 patients with JJ catheter only receiving routine prophylactic therapy.
RESULTS: Regarding general characteristics of the populations no significant difference among groups have been found. Only significant differences have been observed when the variables ""cranberry treatment"" and ""dwell time of JJ catheter"" were related. ""Dwell time of JJ catheter"" was higher in patients with UTI (35.9 compared 28.5 days [P=.03]). UTI percentage was lower in cranberry supplemented patient group (12.9 compared to 38.7% [P=.04]).
CONCLUSIONS: We can conclude that American cranberry (120 mg) has an adjuvant effect in the prevention of UTI in patients with JJ catheter after surgery.

Antibiotic susceptibility of urinary isolates in nursing home residents consuming cranberry capsules versus placebo

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Madden GR, Argraves SM, Van Ness PH, Juthani-Mehta M
Journal: 
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 36(3):356-7
Abstract: 

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection
among nursing home residents, and the microorganisms pre-valent in this setting pose significant challenges for treatment. Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton
) are thought to reduce UTIs; this view is supported by a placebo-controlled trial showing lower rates of bacteriuria plus pyuria with daily ingestion of 300 mL of cranberry juice cocktail (15.0% versus 28.1% in controls). However, subsequent studies of cranberries for prevention of UTI, including a large Cochrane meta-analysis, have shown mixed results. Various mechanisms of the bacteriologic effect of cranberries are postulated; however, inhibition of P fimbriae–mediated adhesion of E. coli by proanthocyanidin (PAC) remains the leading theory.
We sought to compare antibiotic susceptibility and proportions of non–E. coli Enterobacteriaceae among Gram-negative urinary isolates from participants randomized to cranberry capsules compared to placebo.

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