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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Human

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Oral consumption of cranberry juice cocktail inhibits molecular-scale adhesion of clinical uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

Posted: 
January 26, 2012
Authors: 
Tao YY, Pinzon-Arango PA, Howell AB, Camesano TA
Journal: 
J Med Food 14: 7/8, 739-745
Abstract: 

Cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) has been shown to inhibit the formation of biofilm by uropathogenic Escherichia coli. In order to investigate whether the anti-adhesive components could reach the urinary tract after oral consumption of CJC, a volunteer was given 16 oz of either water or CJC. Urine samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after consumption of a single dose. The ability of compounds in the urine to influence bacterial adhesion was tested for six clinical uropathogenic E. coli strains, including four P-fimbriated strains (B37, CFT073, BF1023, and J96) and two strains not expressing P-fimbriae but exhibiting mannose-resistant hemagglutination (B73 and B78). A non-fimbriated strain, HB101, was used as a control. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to measure the adhesion force between a silicon nitride probe and bacteria treated with urine samples. Within 2 hours after CJC consumption, bacteria of the clinical strains treated with the corresponding urine sample demonstrated lower adhesion forces than those treated with urine collected before CJC consumption. The adhesion forces continued decreasing with time after CJC consumption over the 8-hour measurement period. The adhesion forces of bacteria after exposure to urine collected following water consumption did not change. HB101 showed low adhesion forces following both water and CJC consumption, and these did not change over time. The AFM adhesion force measurements were consistent with the results of a hemagglutination assay, confirming that oral consumption of CJC could act against adhesion of uropathogenic E. coli.

Cranberries vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections. A randomized double-blind noninferiority trial in premenopausal women

Posted: 
January 17, 2012
Authors: 
Beerepoot MAJ, Riet G, ter Nys S, Wal WM, van der Borgie CAJM, de Reijke TM, de Prins JM, Koeijers J, Verbon A, Stobberingh E, Geerlings SE
Journal: 
Arch Intern Med 171(14):1270-1278
Abstract: 

Background: The increasing prevalence of uropathogens resistant to antimicrobial agents has stimulated interest in cranberries to prevent recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Methods: In a double-blind, double-dummy noninferiority trial, 221 premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs were randomized to 12-month prophylaxis use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), 480 mg once daily, or cranberry capsules, 500 mg twice daily. Primary end points were the mean number of symptomatic UTIs over 12 months, the proportion of patients with at least 1 symptomatic UTI, the median time to first UTI, and development of antibiotic resistance in indigenous Escherichia coli. Results: After 12 months, the mean number of patients with at least 1 symptomatic UTI was higher in the cranberry than in the TMP-SMX group (4.0 vs 1.8; P=.02), and the proportion of patients with at least 1 symptomatic UTI was higher in the cranberry than in the TMP-SMX group (78.2% vs 71.1%). Median time to the first symptomatic UTI was 4 months for the cranberry and 8 months for the TMP-SMX group. After 1 month, in the cranberry group, 23.7% of fecal and 28.1% of asymptomatic bacteriuria E. coli isolates were TMP-SMX resistant, whereas in the TMP-SMX group, 86.3% of fecal and 90.5% of asymptomatic bacteriuria E. coli isolates were TMP-SMX resistant. Similarly, we found increased resistance rates for trimethoprim, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin in these E. coli isolates after 1 month in the TMP-SMX group. After discontinuation of TMP-SMX, resistance reached baseline levels after 3 months. Antibiotic resistance did not increase in the cranberry group. Cranberries and TMP-SMX were equally well tolerated. Conclusion: In premenopausal women, TMP-SMX, 480 mg once daily, is more effective than cranberry capsules, 500 mg twice daily, to prevent recurrent UTIs, at the expense of emerging antibiotic resistance.

Effect of urinary acidifiers on formaldehyde concentration and efficacy with methenamine therapy

Posted: 
January 18, 2011
Authors: 
Nahata MC, Cummins BA, McLeod DC, Schondelmeyer SW and Butler R
Journal: 
Eur J Clin Pharmacol 22(3):281-4
Abstract: 

Twenty-seven patients with indwelling urinary catheters and chronic bacteriuria were studied for methenamine efficacy. In a crossover fashion, each patient received methenamine mandelate granules 4 g/day alone, with ascorbic acid 4 g/day, and with ascorbic acid 4 g/day plus cranberry cocktail one 1/day. Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and E. coli were the common pathogens. Urinary acidifiers had no significant effect on mean urine pH, however, high urinary formaldehyde concentrations were associated with the use of ascorbic acid. Bacteriocidal formaldehyde levels were more frequently present in patients with acidic urine pH than those with alkaline pH. Although ascorbic acid increased formaldehyde levels, additional cranberry cocktail had no further effect. Despite higher formaldehyde levels, urine culture results were positive in most cases with or without urine acidification. Methenamine therapy may be of limited value in asymptomatic chronic bacteriuric patients with indwelling catheters.

Predictability of methenamine efficacy based on type of urinary pathogen and pH

Posted: 
January 18, 2011
Authors: 
Nahata MC, Cummins BA, McLeod DC and Butler R
Journal: 
J Am Geriatr Soc 29(5):236-9
Abstract: 

This study involved 27 geriatric patients with asymptomatic chronic bacteriuria; all had indwelling Foley catheters. The treatment regimens (daily oral dosage) were: methenamine mandelate (MM) granules, 4 gm; MM, 4 gm, plus ascorbic acid, 4 gm; and MM, 4 gm, plus ascorbic acid, 4 gm, plus cranberry cocktail, 1 liter--administered according to a cross-over design. Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli were the most common urinary organisms. Proteus organisms were more often found in alkaline than in acidic urines, but the type of pathogen had no influence on urinary pH. Urinary formaldehyde concentration [HCHO] was lower in patients with Proteus infection (17.7 micrograms/ml) than in those with Pseudomonas (21.9 micrograms/ml) or E. coli infection (21.8 micrograms/ml). However, for Proteus infection, [HCHO] was higher in patients receiving MM plus ascorbic acid than in those receiving MM alone. Addition of cranberry cocktail to ascorbic acid did not enhance urinary pH, [HCHO] or methenamine efficacy. Our data suggest that in Foley catheter patients with chronic asymptomatic bacteriuria secondary to Proteus, Pseudomonas or E. coli infection, the type of urinary pathogen or the urinary pH cannot be used to predict the efficacy of methenamine therapy either with or without urinary acidifying agents.

First-time urinary tract infection and sexual behavior

Posted: 
January 11, 2011
Authors: 
Foxman B, Geiger AM, Palin K, Gillespie B and Koopman JS.
Journal: 
Epidemiology 6(2):162-8
Abstract: 

We studied the relation between sexual and health behaviors of women and first-time urinary tract infection (UTI). The study population was women using a university health service who were unmarried, had no UTI history, and who had engaged in sexual activity at least once. We found 86 cases of UTI, defined as one or more urinary symptoms and ^1,000colony-forming units per ml urine of a known pathogen. We randomly sampled 288 controls from the student body. Vaginal intercourse increased the risk of UTI; this risk was further increased with condom use. After adjusting for vaginal intercourse with other birth control methods and recentness of current sexual partnership, a single sex act with a condom in the past 2 weeks increased UTI risk by 43%. Having a sex partner for less than 1 year vs 1 year or more, after adjustment for frequency of vaginal intercourse and birth control method, was associated with about twice the risk of UTI [odds ratio (OR) = 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-3.74].After adjusting for frequency of vaginal intercourse, regular drinking of cranberry juice was protective against UTI (OR =
0.48; 95% CI = 0.19-1.02), whereas drinking carbonated soft
drinks appeared to be associated with increased risk (OR =
2.37; 95% CI = 0.75-7.81). Using deodorant sanitary napkins
or tampons was associated with a slight increase in risk of UTI (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 0.74-3.06). Blacks had five times
greater risk of UTI than whites after adjusting for frequency of vaginal intercourse (OR = 5.2; 95% CI = 1.89-24.63). We
observed only modest differences in health behavior between racial groups.

Prevention of relapse with the cranberry juice in chronic pelvic pain syndrome

Posted: 
January 11, 2011
Authors: 
Park SJ, Yoon HN, Shim BS.
Journal: 
Korean J Urol 46(1):63-7
Abstract: 

The treatment of chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is based on antibiotic therapy, but many patients experience a relapse after treatment. Cranberry juice is known for its roles in both the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections. This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of cranberry juice in the prevention of a relapse after the treatment of CPPS.
Materials and Methods: Fifty patients, diagnosed as CPPS (National Institutes of Health; NIH-catagory IIIa), were included in this study. All the patients had initially been treated with levofloxacin and supportive treatment for 8-12 weeks. After completion of the initial treatment, 26 olunteer patients were recommended to drink 150ml of cranberry juice twice a day, 24 patients, as a control group, received no cranberry juice and all the patients re-evaluated after 3 months. Results: On initial diagnosis, the white blood cell (WBC) count in the high power field (HFP) of expressed prostatic secretions (EPS) and the NIHChronic
Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) in cranberry group were 18.2±3.4 and 23.1±4.4 and those of the control group 16.4±4.8 and 22.4±3.7, respectively. When the medical treatment was ended, the WBC of the EPS and NIH-CPSI in the cranberry group were 2.5±2.1 and 14.1±4.1, and those of the control group were 2.7±1.9 and 13.7±2.1, respectively. After the three month follow-up, the cranberry group showed a WBC of 2.2±2.5 in the EPS and a NIH-CPSI of 12.7±3.9, a slight decrease or similar result compared to the treatment completion period. No patient showed aggravation of symptoms after drinking cranberry juice, whereas five from the control group did. Conclusions: Cranberry juice showed an effect in the prevention of a relapse in CPPS patients, with no adverse effects.

A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of cranberry supplements in multiple sclerosis

Posted: 
December 16, 2010
Authors: 
McGuinness SD, Krone R, Metz LM, et al
Journal: 
J Neurosci Nurs 34(1):4-7
Abstract: 

Cranberry cocktail has been reported to reduce bacteriuria and pyuria in elderly women and self-reported urinary tract infection (UTI) in young female undergraduates, but commercially prepared cranberry concentrate supplements have never been evaluated in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with neurogenic bladder. The purpose of this study was to determine whether one 8,000-mg cranberry concentrate supplement daily could prevent UTI in MS participants with bladder symptoms. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled longitudinal trial of cranberry supplement versus placebo with participants who have MS. After informed consent had been obtained from the participants, baseline data were collected and participants were randomized to receive either one cranberry supplement or placebo daily for 6 months. The sample consisted of 135 participants. In the cranberry group 34.6% of participants failed (i.e., developed a UTI) versus 32.4% in the control group (p = .849). Not all cranberry supplements have been found to contain proanthocyanidins, the active ingredient of cranberries. Because there is no way for the consumer to distinguish supplements that contain proanthocyanidins from those that do not, taking juice or whole cranberries may be preferrable.

Cranberry Juice Fails to Prevent Recurrent

Posted: 
December 12, 2010
Authors: 
Barbosa-Cesnik C, Brown MB, Buxton M, Zhang L, DeBusscher J,Foxman B
Journal: 
Clin Infect Dis 52(1):23–30
Abstract: 

Background. A number of observational studies and a few small or open randomized clinical trials suggest that
the American cranberry may decrease incidence of recurring urinary tract infection (UTI).
Methods. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of cranberry on risk of recurring
UTI among 319 college women presenting with an acute UTI. Participants were followed up until a second UTI or
for 6 months, whichever came first. A UTI was defined on the basis of the combination of symptoms and a urine
culture positive for a known uropathogen. The study was designed to detect a 2-fold difference between treated and
placebo groups, as was detected in unblinded trials. We assumed 30% of participants would experience a UTI during
the follow-up period.
Results. Overall, the recurrence rate was 16.9% (95% confidence interval, 12.8%–21.0%), and the distribution
of the recurrences was similar between study groups, with the active cranberry group presenting a slightly higher
recurrence rate (20.0% vs 14.0%). The presence of urinary symptoms at 3 days, 1–2 weeks, and at >1 month was
similar between study groups, with overall no marked differences.
Conclusions. Among otherwise healthy college women with an acute UTI, those drinking 8 oz of 27% cranberry
juice twice daily did not experience a decrease in the 6-month incidence of a second UTI, compared with those
drinking a placebo.

Effect of cranberry juice on urinary pH

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Kinney AB, Blount M.
Journal: 
Nurs Res 28(5):287-90
Abstract: 

Twenty-one female and 19 male subjects who had normal physical and laboratory examinations were randomly assigned into four groups of 10 subjects each. Each group was then randomly assigned a number (150, 180, 210, 240) which determined the amount of cranberry juice, in milliliters, members of that group would ingest with each meal during the experimental phase of the study. The study took place over a 12-day period. A one-group before-and-after design was used, with each subject serving as his or her own control. Diet was controlled; menus on days 1 through 6 were repeated on days 7 through 12 with the addition of cranberry juice at each meal. Subjects used nitrazine pH tape to measure the pH of midstream urine at each voiding. There were significant (.01 level) differences in mean urinary pH between each control group and its corresponding experimental group. Anticipated problems with increased number of bowel movements, weight gain, increased voiding frequency, and subject pH measurement inaccuracy did not occur.

Effect of cranberry juice on urinary pH in older adults

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Jackson B, Hicks LE
Journal: 
Home Healthc Nurse 15(3):198-202
Abstract: 

Most research suggests that ingestion of cranberry juice may be useful in preventing urinary tract infections. This pilot study examines the effect of drinking moderate amounts of commercially available cranberry juice cocktail on urinary pH in older, institutionalized adults. The results of the study have implications for home care nurses who have similar patients in their case loads.

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