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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Human

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Urinary excretion of anthocyanins in humans after cranberry juice ingestion.

Posted: 
November 7, 2010
Authors: 
Ohnishi R, Ito H, Kasajima N, Kaneda M, Kariyama R, Kumon H, Hatano T, Yoshida T
Journal: 
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70(7):1681-7
Abstract: 

Cranberry, which is rich in polyphenols, including anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, has been found to have various effects beneficial to human health, including prevention of urinary tract infections. These effects have been associated with polyphenols in the fruit. We investigated the excretion of anthocyanins in human urine after ingestion of cranberry juice. Eleven healthy volunteers consumed 200 ml of cranberry juice containing 650.8 microg total anthocyanins. Urine samples were collected within 24 h before and after consumption. Six of 12 anthocyanins identified in cranberry were quantified in human urine by HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS). Among these, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, the second most plentiful anthocyanin in the juice, was found most abundantly in urine within 24 h, corresponding to 41.5 nmol (56.1% of total anthocyanins). The urinary levels of anthocyanins reached a maximum between 3 and 6 h after ingestion, and the recovery of total anthocyanins in the urine over 24 h was estimated to be 5.0% of the amount consumed. This study found high absorption and excretion of cranberry anthocyanins in human urine.

A high molecular mass cranberry constituent reduces mutans streptococci level in saliva and inhibits in vitro adhesion to hydroxyapatite

Posted: 
November 5, 2010
Authors: 
Weiss EI, Kozlovsky A, Steinberg D, Lev-Dor R, Bar Ness Greenstein R, Feldman M, Sharon N, Ofek I.
Journal: 
FEMS Microbiol Lett 232(1):89-92
Abstract: 

Previous investigations showed that a high molecular mass, non-dialyzable material (NDM) from cranberries inhibits the adhesion of a number of bacterial species and prevents the co-aggregation of many oral bacterial pairs. In the present study we determined the effect of mouthwash supplemented with NDM on oral hygiene. Following 6 weeks of daily usage of cranberry-containing mouthwash by an experimental group (n = 29), we found that salivary mutans streptococci count as well as the total bacterial count were reduced significantly (ANOVA, P

Effect of cranberry extract on bacteriuria and pyuria in persons with neurogenic bladder secondary to spinal cord injury.

Posted: 
November 5, 2010
Authors: 
Waites KB, Canupp KC, Armstrong S, DeVivo MJ
Journal: 
J Spinal Cord Med 27(1):35-40
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether antibacterial effects of cranberry extract will reduce or eliminate bacteriuria and pyuria in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI).

DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

PARTICIPANTS: Participants were people with SCI residing in the community who were 1 year or longer postinjury with neurogenic bladder managed by intermittent catheterization or external collection device and a baseline urine culture demonstrating at least 10(5) colonies per milliliter of bacteria.

METHODS: Each participant ingested 2 g of concentrated cranberry juice or placebo in capsule form daily for 6 months. Baseline urinalysis and cultures were performed at the time of the initial clinic visit and monthly for 6 months. Microbiologic data were evaluated using analysis of variance with repeated measures.

RESULTS: Twenty-six persons received cranberry extract and 22 persons received placebo. There were no differences or trends detected between participants and controls with respect to number of urine specimens with bacterial counts of at least 10(4) colonies per milliliter, types and numbers of different bacterial species, numbers of urinary leukocytes, urinary pH, or episodes of symptomatic urinary tract infection.

CONCLUSION: Cranberry extract taken in capsule form did not reduce bacteriuria and pyuria in persons with SCI and cannot be recommended as a means to treat these conditions.

Effect of ingesting cranberry juice on bacterial growth in urine.

Posted: 
November 5, 2010
Authors: 
Tong H, Heong S and Chang S
Journal: 
Am J Health Syst Pharm 63(15):1417-9
Abstract: 

No abstract - Introduction: Cranberry juice has been shown to have a significant effect in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in a number of clinical trials. This property of cranberry juice has been attributed to an ability to inhibit bacterial adherence to cells and possibly its urine acidification effects. However, cranberry juice’s antibacterial activity in urine remains unknown. Although a preliminary study by Lee et al. found that concentrated cranberry juice has some antibacterial activity, cranberry juice was studied, not the resultant urine samples. Therefore, our study investigated whether cranberry juice has antibacterial effects in urine. We excluded acidification as a possible antibacterial factor.

Biosafety, antioxidant status, and metabolites in urine after consumption of dried cranberry juice in healthy women: a pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
Valentova K, Stejskal D, Bednar P, Vostalova J, Cíhalík C, Vecerova R, Koukalova D, Kolar M, Reichenbach R, Sknouril L, Ulrichova J, Simanek V
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 55(8):3217-24
Abstract: 

This study assessed the effect of an 8 week consumption of dried cranberry juice (DCJ) on 65 healthy young women. Basic biochemical and hematological parameters, antioxidant status, presence of metabolites in urine, and urine ex vivo antiadherence activity were determined throughout the trial. A 400 mg amount of DCJ/day had no influence on any parameter tested. A 1200 mg amount of DCJ/day resulted in a statistically significant decrease in serum levels of advanced oxidation protein products. This specific protective effect against oxidative damage of proteins is described here for the first time. Urine samples had an inhibitory effect on the adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, but no increase in urine acidity was noted. Hippuric acid, isomers of salicyluric and dihydroxybenzoic acids, and quercetin glucuronide were identified as the main metabolites. In conclusion, cranberry fruits are effective not only in the prevention of urinary tract infection but also for the prevention of oxidative stress.

Effectiveness of a cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) preparation in reducing asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with an ileal enterocystoplasty.

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
Botto H, Neuzillet Y
Journal: 
Scand J Urol Nephrol 44(3):165-8
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: Bacteriuria is a usual complication of enterocystoplasty following cystectomy. Cranberry products may decrease the number of urinary tract infections because of a non-dialysable compound, a condensed tannin, the proanthocyanidin (PAC) type A. This study determined the effectiveness of treatment with a cranberry preparation highly dosed in proanthocyanidin A in prevention of repeated bacteriuria in patients with an ileal enterocystoplasty.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between November 2004 and November 2009, a controlled study was open to patients seen in consultation for follow-up after a radical cystectomy and ileal cystoplasty. Patients had a history of repeated urinary infection and/or bacteriuria during the pretreatment phase. During the treatment phase, patients received a cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) preparation highly dosed in proanthocyanidin A (36 mg measured by the dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde method), one capsule a day. The primary endpoint was the absence of bacteria in urine culture. The secondary endpoints were the presence or absence of symptoms (pain, fever), continence status and upper excretory tract enlargement. Each patient was his or her own historical control.

RESULTS: Fifteen patients were included. The median duration of the period without treatment with cranberry compound was 18.5 (1-93) months. The median duration of the period with treatment with cranberry compound was 32.8 (13-60) months. There was a significant decrease in the number of positive urine cultures during cranberry compound treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with a cranberry compound seems to be effective in reducing asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with an ileal enterocystoplasty. These results need to be validated by further double-blind randomized studies.

Evaluation of cranberry tablets for the prevention of urinary tract infections in spinal cord injured patients with neurogenic bladder.

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
Hess MJ, Hess PE, Sullivan MR, Nee M, Yalla SV
Journal: 
Spinal Cord 46(9):622-6
Abstract: 

STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial with a crossover design.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cranberry tablets for the prevention of urinary tract infection (UTI) in spinal cord injured (SCI) patients.

SETTING: Spinal Cord Injury Unit of a Veterans Administration Hospital, MA, USA.

METHODS: Subjects with spinal cord injury and documentation of neurogenic bladder were randomized to receive 6 months of cranberry extract tablet or placebo, followed by the alternate preparation for an additional 6 months. The primary outcome was the incidence of UTI.

RESULTS: Forty-seven subjects completed the trial. We found a reduction in the likelihood of UTI and symptoms for any month while receiving the cranberry tablet (P

CONCLUSION: Cranberry extract tablets should be considered for the prevention of UTI in SCI patients with neurogenic bladder. Patients with a high GFR may receive the most benefit.

The antifungal activity of urine after ingestion of cranberry products.

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
Lee YL, Owens J, Thrupp L, Barron S, Shanbrom E, Cesario T, Najm WI
Journal: 
J Altern Complement Med 15(9):957-8
Abstract: 

No abstract - Introduction: Cranberry (Vacinicum macrocarpon) is traditionally used in folk medicine for treatment of urinary tract infections. In a recent study, we established that in addition to the antiadhesion effects, concentrated cranberry juice had a direct antimicrobial effect in vitro. We were also able to confirm a direct antimicrobial activity in vitro against a strain of Klebsiella
pneumoniae, in the urine of subjects after ingestion of a commercial cranberry product. While bacteria are the most common cause of urinary tract infections, frequent or prolonged antimicrobial therapy, use of catheters, severely ill patients, high plasma glucose, and invasive procedures can often lead to candiduria. A review of the literature identified one study (Swartz and Medrek 1968), which reported that cranberry juice (40%) in Sabouraud’s dextrose agar had minimal effect on the growth of Candida albicans compared to 0.087% benzoic acid. In this study, we evaluate the anti-Candida activity of urine specimens after ingestion of cranberry.

Can a concentrated cranberry extract prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in women? A pilot study.

Posted: 
November 2, 2010
Authors: 
Bailey DT, Dalton C, Joseph Daugherty F, Tempesta MS
Journal: 
Phytomedicine 14(4):237-41
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are extremely prevalent and despite treatment with antibiotics, reoccurrences are common causing frustration in the patient and the potential for developing antibiotic resistance. The use of cranberry products to prevent UTIs has recently become popular and more clinical studies are needed to explore this use.

OBJECTIVE: This open label pilot study examined the ability of a concentrated cranberry preparation to prevent UTIs in women with a history of recurrent infections.

SUBJECTS: Women between the ages of 25 and 70 years old were included with a history of a minimum of 6 UTIs in the proceeding year.

INTERVENTION: The women took one capsule twice daily for 12 weeks containing 200 mg of a concentrated cranberry extract standardized to 30% phenolics.

DESIGN: A questionnaire was used initially to determine the patient's medical history and they were asked at monthly intervals if any of the information had changed. All of the women in the study had urinalysis within 24h before starting on the study preparation and once a month after that for 4 months. Subjects were followed-up approximately 2 years later.

RESULTS: All 12 subjects participated in the 12-week study and were available for follow up 2 years later. During the study none of the women had a UTI. No adverse events were reported. Two years later, eight of the women who continue to take cranberry, continue to be free from UTIs.

CONCLUSION: A cranberry preparation with a high phenolic content may completely prevent UTIs in women who are subject to recurrent infections.

PMID: 17296290 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Can cranberry juice be a substitute for cefaclor prophylaxis in children with vesicoureteral reflux?

Posted: 
November 2, 2010
Authors: 
Nishizaki N, Someya T, Hirano D, Fujinaga S, Ohtomo Y, Shimizu T and Kaneko K
Journal: 
Pediatr Int 51(3):433-4
Abstract: 

No abstract - Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common childhood infection. In 30–50% of children with UTI the infections occur recurrently, especially in those with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), resulting in hospitalizations, and long-term health problems, such as renal scars, hypertension, and end-stage renal disease. To reduce the likelihood of recurrent UTI for children with VUR, antibiotics prophylaxis has been regarded as the therapeutic standard for many years. However, the disadvantage of long-term antibiotic therapy is the potential for development of resistant organisms in the host.

Although cranberry juice prophylaxis was found to reduce the frequency of bacteriuria with pyuria in older women, no studies have yet been reported in the literature on children with VUR. The purpose of this study was to examine whether cranberry juice can be substituted for antibiotic prophylaxis in the prevention of UTI in children with VUR.

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