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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Human

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Efficacy of cranberry capsules in prevention of urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
Mazokopakis EE
Journal: 
J Altern Complement Med 15(11):1155
Abstract: 

No abstract - Purpose: The aim of our correspondence is to submit the results of a small study (the first in a Greek population to our knowledge) about administering cranberries in the form of capsules to healthy postmenopausal women with recurrent UTIs.

Evaluation of cranberry supplement for reduction of urinary tract infections in individuals with neurogenic bladders secondary to spinal cord injury. A prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
Linsenmeyer TA, Harrison B, Oakley A, Kirshblum S, Stock JA, Millis SR
Journal: 
J Spinal Cord Med 27(1):29-34
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of cranberry supplement at preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI).

DESIGN: A prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

PARTICIPANTS: 21 individuals with neurogenic bladders secondary to SCI.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Favorable or unfavorable response of cranberry supplement vs placebo on urinary bacterial counts and white blood cell (WBC) counts and the combination of bacterial and WBC counts.

METHODS: Individuals with neurogenic bladders due to SCI were recruited and randomly assigned to standardized 400-mg cranberry tablets or placebo 3 times a day for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks and an additional 1-week ""washout period,"" participants were crossed over to the other group. Participants were seen weekly, during which a urine analysis was obtained. UTI was defined as significant bacterial or yeast colony counts in the urine and elevated WBC counts (WBC count > or = 10 per high power field) in centrifuged urine. Participants with symptomatic infections were treated with appropriate antibiotics for 7 days and restarted on the cranberry tablet/ placebo after a 7-day washout period. Urinary pH between the cranberry and placebo groups was compared weekly. Data were analyzed using the Ezzet and Whitehead's random effect approach.

RESULTS: There was no statistically significant treatment (favorable) effect for cranberry supplement beyond placebo when evaluating the 2 treatment groups for bacterial count, WBC count, or WBC and bacterial counts in combination. Urinary pH did not differ between the placebo and cranberry groups.

CONCLUSION: Cranberry tablets were not found to be effective at changing urinary pH or reducing bacterial counts, urinary WBC counts, or UTIs in individuals with neurogenic bladders. Further long-term studies evaluating specific types of bladder management and UTIs will help to determine whether there is any role for the use of cranberries in individuals with neurogenic bladders.

Influence of cranberry juice on the urinary risk factors for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
McHarg T, Rodgers A, Charlton K.
Journal: 
BJU Int 92(7):765-8
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential influence of cranberry juice on urinary biochemical and physicochemical risk factors associated with the formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones, as this product might affect the chemical composition of urine.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Urinary variables were assessed in a randomized cross-over trial in 20 South African men (students) with no previous history of kidney stones. The first group of 10 subjects drank 500 mL of cranberry juice diluted with 1500 mL tap water for 2 weeks, while the second group drank 2000 mL of tap water for the same period. This was followed by a 2-week 'washout' period before the two groups crossed over. During the experimental phase subjects kept a 3-day food diary to assess their dietary and fluid intakes; 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline and on day 14 of the trial periods, and analysed using modern laboratory techniques. Urine analysis data were used to calculate the relative urinary supersaturations of calcium oxalate, uric acid and calcium phosphate. Data were assessed statistically by analysis of variance.

RESULTS: The ingestion of cranberry juice significantly and uniquely altered three key urinary risk factors. Oxalate and phosphate excretion decreased while citrate excretion increased. In addition, there was a decrease in the relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate, which tended to be significantly lower than that induced by water alone.

CONCLUSION: Cranberry juice has antilithogenic properties and, as such, deserves consideration as a conservative therapeutic protocol in managing calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

Risk factors for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in women receiving maintenance antifungal therapy: results of a prospective cohort study.

Posted: 
November 7, 2010
Authors: 
Patel DA, Gillespie B, Sobel JD, Leaman D, Nyirjesy P, Weitz MV, Foxman B.
Journal: 
Am J Obstet Gynecol 190(3):644-53
Abstract: 

The purpose of this study was to examine risk factors for symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis episodes among women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (defined as >/=4 vulvovaginal candidiasis episodes in 1 year) who were receiving maintenance antifungal therapy.

STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study of 65 women aged >/=18 years with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis who attended vaginitis clinics in Detroit, Mich, and Philadelphia, Pa.

RESULTS: The 9-month risk of vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrence was 41.8%. Almost two fifths of the women reported activity limitations because of vulvovaginal candidiasis episodes, most or all of the time. Younger women and those women with a history of bacterial vaginosis were at increased risk of vulvovaginal candidiasis episodes. Behavioral factors that were associated significantly with increasing vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrence >/=2- fold included wearing pantyliners or pantyhose and consuming cranberry juice or acidophilus-containing products.

CONCLUSION: The use of pantyliners or pantyhose, consumption of cranberry juice or acidophil-containing products, a history of bacterial vaginosis, and age

Urinary excretion of anthocyanins in humans after cranberry juice ingestion.

Posted: 
November 7, 2010
Authors: 
Ohnishi R, Ito H, Kasajima N, Kaneda M, Kariyama R, Kumon H, Hatano T, Yoshida T
Journal: 
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70(7):1681-7
Abstract: 

Cranberry, which is rich in polyphenols, including anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, has been found to have various effects beneficial to human health, including prevention of urinary tract infections. These effects have been associated with polyphenols in the fruit. We investigated the excretion of anthocyanins in human urine after ingestion of cranberry juice. Eleven healthy volunteers consumed 200 ml of cranberry juice containing 650.8 microg total anthocyanins. Urine samples were collected within 24 h before and after consumption. Six of 12 anthocyanins identified in cranberry were quantified in human urine by HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS). Among these, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, the second most plentiful anthocyanin in the juice, was found most abundantly in urine within 24 h, corresponding to 41.5 nmol (56.1% of total anthocyanins). The urinary levels of anthocyanins reached a maximum between 3 and 6 h after ingestion, and the recovery of total anthocyanins in the urine over 24 h was estimated to be 5.0% of the amount consumed. This study found high absorption and excretion of cranberry anthocyanins in human urine.

A high molecular mass cranberry constituent reduces mutans streptococci level in saliva and inhibits in vitro adhesion to hydroxyapatite

Posted: 
November 5, 2010
Authors: 
Weiss EI, Kozlovsky A, Steinberg D, Lev-Dor R, Bar Ness Greenstein R, Feldman M, Sharon N, Ofek I.
Journal: 
FEMS Microbiol Lett 232(1):89-92
Abstract: 

Previous investigations showed that a high molecular mass, non-dialyzable material (NDM) from cranberries inhibits the adhesion of a number of bacterial species and prevents the co-aggregation of many oral bacterial pairs. In the present study we determined the effect of mouthwash supplemented with NDM on oral hygiene. Following 6 weeks of daily usage of cranberry-containing mouthwash by an experimental group (n = 29), we found that salivary mutans streptococci count as well as the total bacterial count were reduced significantly (ANOVA, P

Effect of cranberry extract on bacteriuria and pyuria in persons with neurogenic bladder secondary to spinal cord injury.

Posted: 
November 5, 2010
Authors: 
Waites KB, Canupp KC, Armstrong S, DeVivo MJ
Journal: 
J Spinal Cord Med 27(1):35-40
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether antibacterial effects of cranberry extract will reduce or eliminate bacteriuria and pyuria in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI).

DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

PARTICIPANTS: Participants were people with SCI residing in the community who were 1 year or longer postinjury with neurogenic bladder managed by intermittent catheterization or external collection device and a baseline urine culture demonstrating at least 10(5) colonies per milliliter of bacteria.

METHODS: Each participant ingested 2 g of concentrated cranberry juice or placebo in capsule form daily for 6 months. Baseline urinalysis and cultures were performed at the time of the initial clinic visit and monthly for 6 months. Microbiologic data were evaluated using analysis of variance with repeated measures.

RESULTS: Twenty-six persons received cranberry extract and 22 persons received placebo. There were no differences or trends detected between participants and controls with respect to number of urine specimens with bacterial counts of at least 10(4) colonies per milliliter, types and numbers of different bacterial species, numbers of urinary leukocytes, urinary pH, or episodes of symptomatic urinary tract infection.

CONCLUSION: Cranberry extract taken in capsule form did not reduce bacteriuria and pyuria in persons with SCI and cannot be recommended as a means to treat these conditions.

Effect of ingesting cranberry juice on bacterial growth in urine.

Posted: 
November 5, 2010
Authors: 
Tong H, Heong S and Chang S
Journal: 
Am J Health Syst Pharm 63(15):1417-9
Abstract: 

No abstract - Introduction: Cranberry juice has been shown to have a significant effect in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in a number of clinical trials. This property of cranberry juice has been attributed to an ability to inhibit bacterial adherence to cells and possibly its urine acidification effects. However, cranberry juice’s antibacterial activity in urine remains unknown. Although a preliminary study by Lee et al. found that concentrated cranberry juice has some antibacterial activity, cranberry juice was studied, not the resultant urine samples. Therefore, our study investigated whether cranberry juice has antibacterial effects in urine. We excluded acidification as a possible antibacterial factor.

Biosafety, antioxidant status, and metabolites in urine after consumption of dried cranberry juice in healthy women: a pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
Valentova K, Stejskal D, Bednar P, Vostalova J, Cíhalík C, Vecerova R, Koukalova D, Kolar M, Reichenbach R, Sknouril L, Ulrichova J, Simanek V
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 55(8):3217-24
Abstract: 

This study assessed the effect of an 8 week consumption of dried cranberry juice (DCJ) on 65 healthy young women. Basic biochemical and hematological parameters, antioxidant status, presence of metabolites in urine, and urine ex vivo antiadherence activity were determined throughout the trial. A 400 mg amount of DCJ/day had no influence on any parameter tested. A 1200 mg amount of DCJ/day resulted in a statistically significant decrease in serum levels of advanced oxidation protein products. This specific protective effect against oxidative damage of proteins is described here for the first time. Urine samples had an inhibitory effect on the adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, but no increase in urine acidity was noted. Hippuric acid, isomers of salicyluric and dihydroxybenzoic acids, and quercetin glucuronide were identified as the main metabolites. In conclusion, cranberry fruits are effective not only in the prevention of urinary tract infection but also for the prevention of oxidative stress.

Effectiveness of a cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) preparation in reducing asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with an ileal enterocystoplasty.

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
Botto H, Neuzillet Y
Journal: 
Scand J Urol Nephrol 44(3):165-8
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: Bacteriuria is a usual complication of enterocystoplasty following cystectomy. Cranberry products may decrease the number of urinary tract infections because of a non-dialysable compound, a condensed tannin, the proanthocyanidin (PAC) type A. This study determined the effectiveness of treatment with a cranberry preparation highly dosed in proanthocyanidin A in prevention of repeated bacteriuria in patients with an ileal enterocystoplasty.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between November 2004 and November 2009, a controlled study was open to patients seen in consultation for follow-up after a radical cystectomy and ileal cystoplasty. Patients had a history of repeated urinary infection and/or bacteriuria during the pretreatment phase. During the treatment phase, patients received a cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) preparation highly dosed in proanthocyanidin A (36 mg measured by the dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde method), one capsule a day. The primary endpoint was the absence of bacteria in urine culture. The secondary endpoints were the presence or absence of symptoms (pain, fever), continence status and upper excretory tract enlargement. Each patient was his or her own historical control.

RESULTS: Fifteen patients were included. The median duration of the period without treatment with cranberry compound was 18.5 (1-93) months. The median duration of the period with treatment with cranberry compound was 32.8 (13-60) months. There was a significant decrease in the number of positive urine cultures during cranberry compound treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with a cranberry compound seems to be effective in reducing asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with an ileal enterocystoplasty. These results need to be validated by further double-blind randomized studies.

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