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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Human

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Highly Standardized Cranberry Extract Supplementation (Anthocran®) as Prophylaxis in Young Healthy Subjects with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Ledda A, Belcaro G, Dugall M, Riva A, Togni S, Eggenhoffner R, Giacomelli L.
Journal: 
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 21(2):389-393
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE:Several studies have investigated the role of cranberry extract in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), on different selected subpopulations at increased risk of UTI. In this registry, we tested the prophylactic effects of an oral supplementation containing a highly standardized cranberry extract (Anthocran®) in young subjects with a previous history of recurrent UTIs, over a 2-months follow-up.PATIENTS AND METHODS:36 otherwise healthy subjects in juvenile age (between 12 and 18 years of age) suffering by recurrent UTIs were enrolled. Participants received either a standard management (SM) (control group, n=17) or SM associated with an oral daily supplementation (supplementation group, n=19). Oral supplementation consisted in one capsule containing 120 mg of cranberry extract (Anthocran®), standardized to 36 mg proanthocyanidins, for 60 days. The effectiveness in the prevention of UTIs was determined by: the number of UTIs evaluated two months before the inclusion in the registry and during the supplementation period; the number of symptom-free subjects during the registry period. Safety considerations and measurement of adherence to treatment were also performed.RESULTS:The two groups were comparable for age, gender distribution, the days of follow-up and also for the number of UTIs before inclusion. The mean number of UTIs observed during the registry in the supplemented group (0.31±0.2) was significantly lower compared to the control group (2.3±1.3) and to the mean number of UTIs assessed before inclusion (1.74±1.1) (p-value = 0.0001 for both). Moreover, 63.1% of supplemented subjects was symptom-free during the registry period, whereas 23.5% subjects were asymptomatic in the control group (p-value <0.05).CONCLUSIONS:This registry supplement study provides compelling evidence on the efficacy of an oral supplementation, based on a highly standardized cranberry extract (Anthocran®), as prophylaxis in young healthy subjects suffering by recurrent UTIs.

Addition of Bacitracin and Cranberry to Standard Foley Care Reduces Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Sorour K, Nuzzo E, Tuttle M, Naidus E, Donovan LM, Bekhit M, Myers T, Malacaria B, Ryan S, Sorour O, Brown R
Journal: 
Canadian Journal of Infection Control. 2016 Sep 1;31(3)
Abstract: 

Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent over 30% of hospital-acquired infections with an annual incidence of 560,000 CAUTIs per year in the United States. An estimated 13,000 deaths are attributable to CAUTIs annually. Standard prevention strategies frequently fail to eliminate CAUTI in intensive care units. The effectiveness of a hospital-based program of cranberry products (CP) and meatal antimicrobials to prevent CAUTI in a heterogeneous ICU population has not been evaluated. Methods: Data of Foley days and incidence of CAUTI in the Critical Care Unit (CCU) and the general wards (GW) in a single 245-bed suburban medical center were collected as a part of routine infection control surveillance. Standard CAUTI prevention bundles were applied throughout the hospital in 2009. In May 2012 an intervention of applying Bacitracin ointment to the urinary meatus-Foley junction and oral cranberry juice or tablets was started only in the CCU. A retrospective review of the data collected before and after the intervention in both the GW and CCU was completed. Results: Prior to the QI intervention in May 2012, average CAUTI rates were 2.8 CAUTIs per 1000 catheter days (CI 0.26-1.89) in the CCU and 1.6 CAUTIs per 1000 catheter days (CI 0.71-4.97) on the GW (p = 0.28). After the intervention, the average number of CAUTIs/1000 days in the CCU was 0, which was significantly different from the average of 1.52 CAUTIs/1000 days (CI 0.78-2.26) on the GW (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our data indicate that the addition of cranberry-containing products and antimicrobial meatal care may further reduce incidence of CAUTI when added to standard recommendations. Further research will be necessary to determine if these interventions could be effective in a wider population.

Cranberry Intervention in Patients with Prostate Cancer Prior to Radical Prostatectomy. Clinical, Pathological, and Laboratory Findings

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Student V, Vidlar A, Bouchal J, Vrbkova J, Kolar Z, Kral M, Kosina P, Vostalova J
Journal: 
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 160(4):559-565
Abstract: 

Background and Objectives. Recently, we described an inverse association between cranberry supplementation and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) in patients with negative biopsy for prostate cancer (PCa) and chronic nonbacterial prostatitis. This double blind placebo controlled study evaluates the effects of cranberry consumption on PSA values and other markers in men with PCa before radical prostatectomy. Methods: Prior to surgery, 64 patients with prostate cancer were randomized to a cranberry or placebo group. The cranberry group (n=32) received a mean 30 days of 1500 mg cranberry fruit powder. The control group (n=32) took a similar amount of placebo. Selected blood/urine markers as well as free and total phenolics in urine were measured at baseline and on the day of surgery in both groups. Prostate tissue markers were evaluated after surgery. Results: The serum PSA significantly decreased by 22.5% in the cranberry arm (n=31, P<0.05). A trend to down-regulation of urinary beta-microseminoprotein (MSMB) and serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, as well as upregulation of IGF-1 was found after cranberry supplementation. There were no changes in prostate tissue markers or, composition and concentration of phenolics in urine. Conclusions: Daily consumption of a powdered cranberry fruit lowered serum PSA in patients with prostate cancer. The whole fruit contains constituents that may regulate the expression of androgen-responsive genes.

Effect of Cranberry Capsules on Bacteriuria Plus Pyuria Among Older Women in Nursing Homes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Juthani-Mehta M, Van Ness PH, Bianco L, Rink A, Rubeck S, Ginter S, Argraves S, Charpentier P, Acampora D, Trentalange M, Quagliarello V
Journal: 
JAMA 316(18):1879-87.
Abstract: 

Bacteriuria plus pyuria is highly prevalent among older women living in nursing homes.Cranberry capsules are an understudied, nonantimicrobial prevention strategy used in this population. Objective:To test the effect of 2 oral cranberry capsules once a day on presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria among women residing in nursing homes.Design, Setting, and Participants:Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled efficacy trial with stratification by nursing home and involving 185 English-speaking women aged 65 years or older, with or without bacteriuria plus pyuria at baseline, residing in 21 nursing homes located within 50 miles (80 km) of New Haven, Connecticut (August 24, 2012-October 26, 2015).Interventions:Two oral cranberry capsules, each capsule containing 36 mg of the active ingredient proanthocyanidin (ie, 72 mg total, equivalent to 20 ounces of cranberry juice) vs placebo administered once a day in 92 treatment and 93 control group participants.Main Outcomes and Measures:Presence of bacteriuria (ie, at least 105 colony-forming units [CFUs] per milliliter of 1 or 2 microorganisms in urine culture) plus pyuria (ie, any number of white blood cells on urinalysis) assessed every 2 months over the 1-year study surveillance; any positive finding was considered to meet the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), all-cause death, all-cause hospitalization, all multidrug antibiotic-resistant organisms, antibiotics administered for suspected UTI, and total antimicrobial administration.Results:Of the 185 randomized study participants (mean age, 86.4 years [SD, 8.2], 90.3% white, 31.4% with bacteriuria plus pyuria at baseline), 147 completed the study. Overall adherence was 80.1%. Unadjusted results showed the presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria in 25.5% (95% CI, 18.6%-33.9%) of the treatment group and in 29.5% (95% CI, 22.2%-37.9%) of the control group. The adjusted generalized estimating equations model that accounted for missing data and covariates showed no significant difference in the presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria between the treatment group vs the control group (29.1% vs 29.0%; OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.61-1.66; P = .98). There were no significant differences in number of symptomatic UTIs (10 episodes in the treatment group vs 12 in the control group), rates of death (17 vs 16 deaths; 20.4 vs 19.1 deaths/100 person-years; rate ratio [RR], 1.07; 95% CI, 0.54-2.12), hospitalization (33 vs 50 admissions; 39.7 vs 59.6 hospitalizations/100 person-years; RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.32-1.40), bacteriuria associated with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (9 vs 24 episodes; 10.8 vs 28.6 episodes/100 person-years; RR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.10-1.46), antibiotics administered for suspected UTIs (692 vs 909 antibiotic days; 8.3 vs 10.8 antibiotic days/person-year; RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.44-1.33), or total antimicrobial utilization (1415 vs 1883 antimicrobial days; 17.0 vs 22.4 antimicrobial days/person-year; RR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.46-1.25).Conclusions and Relevance:Among older women residing in nursing homes, administration of cranberry capsules vs placebo resulted in no significant difference in presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria over 1 year.Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01691430.

Please see this link for the Cranberry Institute's official statement regarding this research: http://www.cranberryinstitute.org/HCP/cranutiresponse.html

Supplementation with High Titer Cranberry Extract (Anthocran®) for the Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Elderly Mensuffering from Moderate Prostatic Hyperplasia: a Pilot Study

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Ledda A, Belcaro G, Dugall M, Feragalli B, Riva A, Togni S, Giacomelli L
Journal: 
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 20(24):5205-5209
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: Recently, cranberry extracts have been tested as a nutritional supplementation in the prevention of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) as well as recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in subjects at risk, with mixed results. However, evidence of efficacy should be considered only for well-characterized and standardized products in a more selected study population. Moreover, the efficacy of these interventions in elderly must be further investigated. The aim of this pilot, registry study was to evaluate the prophylactic effects of an oral supplementation containing a highly concentrated and standardized cranberry extract reproducing the natural total profile of cranberry fruits, in elderly men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), suffering from recurrent UTIs, over a 2-months follow-up.PATIENTS AND METHODS: 43 men (age > 65 years) enrolled in this study freely decided to receive either a standard management (SM) only (n = 21) or SM associated with an oral supplementation (n = 23). Supplementation consisted in a daily administration of one capsule containing cranberry extract (Anthocran®) for 60 consecutive days. The clinical effectiveness in the prevention of UTIs was determined by the number of UTIs in the two months before the inclusion in the registry and during the supplementation period, and the number of symptom-free subjects during the registry period. Safety considerations were also performed.RESULTS: In the supplemented group, the mean number of UTI episodes reported during the registry (0.8 ± 0.5) significantly decreased compared with inclusion time (3.2 ± 1.3), p-value = 0.0001. No significant changes were observed in control, SM-only group. Importantly, the cranberry oral supplementation was superior over SM at reducing the mean number of UTIs (p-value = 0.0062).CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that cranberry supplementation could be an effective and safe approach, within an SM program, for the prevention of recurrent UTIs in elderly men suffering from BPH avoiding some antibiotic treatments.

Effect of oral cranberry extract (standardized proanthocyanidin-A) in patients with recurrent UTI by pathogenic E. coli: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical research study.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Singh I; Gautam LK; Kaur IR.
Journal: 
International Urology & Nephrology. , 2016 Jun 17
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of cranberry extract (PAC-A ~ proanthocyanidin-A) on the in vitro bacterial properties of uropathogenic (E. coli) and its efficacy/tolerability in patients with subclinical or uncomplicated recurrent UTI (r-UTI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: After obtaining clearance from the ethics committee and administering a written informed consent, 72 patients with r-UTI were enrolled as per protocol (November 2011 to March 2013) in this prospective study, to randomly receive (PAC-A: group I, 36) or (placebo: group II, 36), for 12 weeks. Any change/reduction in the incidence of r-UTI at 12 weeks was construed to be the primary endpoint of this study. RESULTS: After 12 weeks, bacterial adhesion scoring decreased (0.28)/(2.14) in group I/II (p < 0.001); 32/36 (88.8 %) and 2/36 (5.5 %) in groups I and II, respectively, turned MRHA negative (p < 0.001); biofilm (p < 0.01) and bacterial growth (p < 0.001) decreased in group I; microscopic pyuria score was 0.36/2.0 in group I/II (p < 0.001); r-UTI decreased to 33.33 versus 88.89 % in group I/II (p < 0.001); mean subjective dysuria score was 0.19 versus 1.47 in group I/II (p < 0.001), while mean urine pH was 5.88 versus 6.30 in group I/II (p < 0.001). No in vitro antibacterial activity of cranberry could be demonstrated, and no adverse events were noted. CONCLUSIONS: The overall efficacy and tolerability of standardized cranberry extract containing (PAC-A) as a food supplement were superior to placebo in terms of reduced bacterial adhesion; bacterial MRHA negativity; urine pH reduction; and in preventing r-UTI (dysuria, bacteriuria and pyuria). Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to elucidate the precise role, exact dose and optimal duration of PAC-A therapy in patients at risk of r-UTI.

Effectiveness of a Combination of Cranberries, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Vitamin C for the Management of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women: Results of a Pilot Study.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Montorsi F; Gandaglia G; Salonia A; Briganti A; Mirone V.
Journal: 
European Urology. , 2016 Jun 7
Abstract: 

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in women and many patients with recurrent UTIs do not eradicate the condition albeit being treated with multiple courses of antibiotics. The use of nutritional supplements might reduce the risk of recurrent UTIs. However, the role of supplements taken as single agents appears to be limited. We hypothesized that a combination of cranberries, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and vitamin C might produce a clinical benefit due to their additive or synergistic effects. We prospectively enrolled 42 consecutive women with recurrent UTIs treated with 120mg cranberries (minimum proanthocyanidin content: 32mg), 1 billion heat-killed L. rhamnosus SGL06, and 750mg vitamin C thrice daily for 20 consecutive d. Patients were advised to stop taking these supplements for 10 d and then to repeat the whole cycle three times. Patients were contacted three mo and six mo following the end of the administration of these supplements and evaluated with a semistructured interview and urinalysis. Responders were defined as the absence of symptoms and negative urinalysis or urine culture. Follow-up data were available for 36 patients. Overall, 26 (72.2%) and 22 patients (61.1%) were responders at the 3-mo and 6-month follow-up. No major side effects were recorded. The administration of cranberries, L. rhamnosus, and vitamin C might represent a safe and effective option in women with recurrent UTIs.

Prevention of urinary tract infection with OximacroReg., a cranberry extract with a high content of A-type proanthocyanidins: a pre-clinical double-blind controlled study.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Occhipinti, A. Germano, A. Maffei, M. E.
Journal: 
Urology Journal; 2016. 13(2):2640-2649.
Abstract: 

Purpose: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are widespread and affect a large portion of the human population. Cranberry juices and extracts have been used for UTI prevention due to their content of bioactive proanthocyanidins (PACs), particularly of the A type (PAC-A). Controversial clinical results obtained with cranberry are often due to a lack of precise determination and authentication of the PAC-A content. This study used OximacroReg. (Biosfered S.r.l., Turin, Italy), a cranberry extract with a high content of PAC-A, to prevent UTIs in female and male volunteers. Materials and Methods: The OximacroReg. PACs content was assayed using the Brunswick Laboratories 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (BL-DMAC) method, and the dimer and trimer PACs-A and PACs-B percentages were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). A balanced group of female (ranging from 19 to over 51 years) and male volunteers (over 51 years) was divided into two groups. The experimental group received 1 capsule containing OximacroReg. (36 mg PACs-A) twice per day (morning and evening) for 7 days, and the placebo group was given the same number of capsules with no PACs. Results: Analysis of OximacroReg. revealed a high total PAC content (372.34 mg/g+or-2.3) and a high percentage of PAC-A dimers and trimers (86.72%+or-1.65). After 7 days of OximacroReg. administration, a significant difference was found between the placebo and OximacroReg. groups for both females (Mann-Whitney U-test=875; P=.001; n=60) and males (Mann-Whitney U-test=24; P=.016; n=10). When the female and male age ranges were analysed separately, the female age range 31-35 showed only slightly significant differences between the placebo and OximacroReg. groups (Mann-Whitney U-test=20.5; P=.095; n=10), whereas all other female age ranges showed highly significant differences between the placebo and OximacroReg. groups (Mann-Whitney U-test=25; P=.008; n=10). Furthermore, colony forming unit/mL counts from the urine cultures showed a significant difference (P<.001) between the experimental and the placebo groups (SD difference=51688; df=34, t=-10.27; Dunn-Sidak Adjusted P<.001, Bonferroni Adjusted P<.001). Conclusion: Careful determination of the total PAC content using the BL-DMAC method and the authentication of PACs-A with mass spectrometry in cranberry extracts are necessary to prepare effective doses for UTI prevention. A dose of 112 mg OximacroReg. containing 36 mg PACs-A was found to be effective in preventing UTIs when used twice per day for 7 days.

Consumption of a cranberry juice beverage lowered the number of clinical urinary tract infection episodes in women with a recent history of urinary tract infection

Posted: 
June 14, 2016
Authors: 
Kevin C Maki, Kerrie L Kaspar, Christina Khoo, Linda H Derrig, Arianne L Schild, and Kalpana Gupta
Journal: 
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 103 (6) (pp 1434-1442), 2016
Abstract: 

Objective: We assessed the effects of the consumption of a cranberry beverage on episodes of clinical UTIs.

Design: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial, women with a history of a recent UTI were assigned to consume one 240-mL serving of cranberry beverage/d (n = 185) or a placebo (n = 188) beverage for 24 wk. The primary outcome was the clinical UTI incidence density, which was defined as the total number of clinical UTI events (including multiple events per subject when applicable) per unit of observation time.

Results: The dates of the random assignment of the first subject and the last subject’s final visit were February 2013 and March 2015, respectively. The mean age was 40.9 y, and characteristics were similar in both groups. Compliance with study product consumption was 98%, and 86% of subjects completed the treatment period in both groups. There were 39 investigator-diagnosed episodes of clinical UTI in the cranberry group compared with 67 episodes in the placebo group (antibiotic use–adjusted incidence rate ratio: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.91; P = 0.016). Clinical UTI with pyuria was also significantly reduced (incidence rate ratio: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.97; P = 0.037). One clinical UTI event was prevented for every 3.2 woman-years (95% CI: 2.0, 13.1 woman-years) of the cranberry intervention. The time to UTI with culture positivity did not differ significantly between groups (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.56, 1.67; P = 0.914).

Conclusion: The consumption of a cranberry juice beverage lowered the number of clinical UTI episodes in women with a recent history of UTI. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01776021.

Full article: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/103/6/1434.full

Are High Proanthocyanidins Key to Cranberry Efficacy in the Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection?

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Vostalova J, Vidlar A, Simanek V, Galandakova A, Kosina P, Vacek J, Vrbkova J, Zimmermann BF, Ulrichova J, Student V
Journal: 
Phytother Res 29(10):1559-67
Abstract: 

Most research on American cranberry in the prevention of urinary tract infection (UTI) has used juices. The spectrum of components in juice is limited. This study tested whether whole cranberry fruit powder (proanthocyanidin content 0.56%) could prevent recurrent UTI in 182 women with two or more UTI episodes in the last year. Participants were randomized to a cranberry (n=89) or a placebo group (n=93) and received daily 500mg of cranberry for 6months. The number of UTI diagnoses was counted. The intent-to-treat analyses showed that in the cranberry group, the UTIs were significantly fewer [10.8% vs. 25.8%, p=0.04, with an age-standardized 12-month UTI history (p=0.01)]. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the cranberry group experienced a longer time to first UTI than the placebo group (p=0.04). Biochemical parameters were normal, and there was no significant difference in urinary phenolics between the groups at baseline or on day180. The results show that cranberry fruit powder (peel, seeds, pulp) may reduce the risk of symptomatic UTI in women with a history of recurrent UTIs.

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