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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: In-Vitro

Displaying 1 - 10 of 111

Inhibitory Effects of Fruit Berry Extracts on Streptococcus Mutans Biofilms.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Philip N, Bandara HMHN, Leishman SJ, Walsh LJ.
Journal: 
Eur J Oral Sci. 2018 Dec 28. doi: 10.1111/eos.12602
Abstract: 

Dark-colored fruit berries are a rich source of polyphenols that could provide innovative bioactive molecules as natural weapons against dental caries. High-quality extracts of cranberry, blueberry, and strawberry, and a combination of the three berry extracts (Orophenol), were used to treat 24-h-old Streptococcus mutans biofilms. The grown biofilms were treated with the berry extracts at concentrations ranging from 62.5 to 500 μg ml-1 . Treated biofilms were assessed for metabolic activity, acidogenicity, biovolumes, structural organization, and bacterial viability. The biofilms treated with the cranberry and Orophenol extracts exhibited the most significant reductions in metabolic activity, acid production, and bacterial/exopolysaccharide (EPS) biovolumes, while their structural architecture appeared less compact than the control-treated biofilms. The blueberry extract produced significant reductions in metabolic activity and acidogenicity only at the highest concentration tested, without significantly affecting bacterial/EPS biovolumes or biofilm architecture. Strawberry extracts had no significant effects on S. mutans biofilms. None of the berry extracts were bactericidal for S. mutans. The results indicate that cranberry extract was the most effective extract in disrupting S. mutans virulence properties without significantly affecting bacterial viability. This suggests a potential ecological role for cranberry phenols as non-bactericidal agents capable of modulating pathogenicity of cariogenic biofilms.

Water-Soluble Cranberry Extract Inhibits Vibrio Cholerae Biofilm Formation Possibly Through Modulating the Second Messenger 3',5'-Cyclic Diguanylate Level.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Pederson, D. B. Dong YuQing Blue, L. B. Smith, S. V. Cao, M
Journal: 
PLoS ONE; 2018. 13(11):e0207056.
Abstract: 

Quorum sensing (QS) and nucleotide-based second messengers are vital signaling systems that regulate bacterial physiology in response to changing environments. Disrupting bacterial signal transduction is a promising direction to combat infectious diseases, and QS and the second messengers are undoubtedly potential targets. In Vibrio cholerae, both QS and the second messenger 3', 5' - cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) play a central role in controlling motility, motile-to-sessile life transition, and virulence. In this study, we found that water-soluble extract from the North American cranberry could significantly inhibit V. cholerae biofilm formation during the development/maturation stage by reducing the biofilm matrix production and secretion. The anti-biofilm effect by water-soluble cranberry extract was possibly through modulating the intracellular c-di-GMP level and was independent of QS and the QS master regulator HapR. Our results suggest an opportunity to explore more functional foods to fight stubborn infections through interference with the bacterial signaling systems.

Cranberry Proanthocyanidin-Chitosan Hybrid Nanoparticles as a Potential Inhibitor of Extra-Intestinal Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Invasion of Gut Epithelial Cells.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Alfaro-Viquez E; Esquivel-Alvarado D; Madrigal-Carballo S; Krueger CG; Reed JD.
Journal: 
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 111:415-420
Abstract: 

Chitosan interacts with proanthocyanidins through hydrogen-bonding, which allows encapsulation and development of stable nanoparticles via ionotropic gelation. Cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) are associated with the prevention of urinary tract infections and PAC inhibit invasion of gut epithelial cells by extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC). We determined the effect of cranberry proanthocyanidin-chitosan hybrid nanoparticles (PAC-CHTNp) on the ExPEC invasion of gut epithelial cells in vitro. PAC-CHTNp were characterized according to size, morphology, and bioactivity. Results showed a decrease in the size of the nanoparticles as the concentration of PAC was increased, indicating that PAC increases cross-linking by hydrogen-bonding on the surface of the chitosan nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were produced with diameters ranging from 367.3nm to 293.2nm. Additionally, PAC-CHTNp significantly inhibited the ability of ExPEC to invade the enterocytes by ~80% at 66mugGAE/mL and by ~92% at 100mugGAE/mL. Results also indicate that chitosan nanoparticles alone were not significantly different from controls in preventing ExPEC invasion of enterocytes (data not shown) and also there were not significant differences between PAC alone and PAC-CHTNp, suggesting that the new PAC-CHTNp could lead to an increase in the stability of encapsulated PAC, maintain the molecular adhesion of PAC to ExPEC.

Cranberry-Derived Proanthocyanidins Induce a Differential Transcriptomic Response within Candida Albicans Urinary Biofilms.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Sundararajan A; Rane HS; Ramaraj T; Sena J; Howell AB; Bernardo SM; Schilkey FD; Lee SA.
Journal: 
PLoS ONE.13(8):e0201969
Abstract: 

Candida albicans is one of the most common causes of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, azoles are poorly active against biofilms, echinocandins do not achieve clinically useful urinary concentrations, and amphotericin B exhibits severe toxicities. Thus, novel strategies are needed to prevent Candida UTIs, which are often associated with urinary catheter biofilms. We previously demonstrated that cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins (PACs) prevent C. albicans biofilm formation in an in vitro urinary model. To elucidate functional pathways unique to urinary biofilm development and PAC inhibition, we investigated the transcriptome of C. albicans in artificial urine (AU), with and without PACs. C. albicans biofilm and planktonic cells were cultivated with or without PACs. Genome-wide expression analysis was performed by RNA sequencing. Differentially expressed genes were determined using DESeq2 software; pathway analysis was performed using Cytoscape. Approximately 2,341 of 6,444 total genes were significantly expressed in biofilm relative to planktonic cells. Functional pathway analysis revealed that genes involved in filamentation, adhesion, drug response and transport were up-regulated in urinary biofilms. Genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism and nutrient response were down-regulated. In PAC-treated urinary biofilms compared to untreated control biofilms, 557 of 6,444 genes had significant changes in gene expression. Genes downregulated in PAC-treated biofilms were implicated in iron starvation and adhesion pathways. Although urinary biofilms share key features with biofilms formed in other environments, many genes are uniquely expressed in urinary biofilms. Cranberry-derived PACs interfere with the expression of iron acquisition and adhesion genes within urinary biofilms.

INHIBITION OF ADHESION OF UROPATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI TO CANINE AND FELINE UROEPITHELIAL CELLS BY AN EXTRACT FROM CRANBERRY.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Mayot, G; Secher, C; Di Martino P
Journal: 
The Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences; Nitra Vol. 7, Iss. 4: 404-406.DOI:10.15414/jmbfs.2018.7.4.404-406
Abstract: 

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the main infectious agent of urinary tract infections (UTI) in humans, dogs and cats. Dietary consumption of cranberries is thought to be associated with prevention of UTI in humans based on decreased adhesion of UPEC to uroepithelial cells. The present study evaluated the impact of cranberry extract addition on the attachment of UPEC to canine Madin-Darby Canine Kidney and Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney uroepithelial cells. When the extract was present during bacterial growth or only during adhesion tests, a dose-dependent decrease of UPEC adhesion to all cell types was observed. Bacterial growth was weakly decreased only in the presence of the highest concentration of cranberry extract showing that the anti-adherence effect did not require a bacterial growth inhibitory effect. In conclusion, the addition of cranberry extract has preventive effects on the in vitro bacterial attachment to canine and feline uroepithelial cells in a dose dependent way.

Propolis Potentiates the Effect of Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) Against the Virulence of Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Ranfaing J; Dunyach-Remy C; Louis L; Lavigne JP; Sotto A.
Journal: 
Scientific Reports. 8(1):10706,
Abstract: 

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most prevalent bacteria isolated in urinary tract infections (UTI), is now frequently resistant to antibiotics used to treat this pathology. The antibacterial properties of cranberry and propolis could reduce the frequency of UTIs and thus the use of antibiotics, helping in the fight against the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Transcriptomic profiles of a clinical UPEC strain exposed to cranberry proanthocyanidins alone (190micro g/mL), propolis alone (102.4micro g/mL) and a combination of both were determined. Cranberry alone, but more so cranberry+propolis combined, modified the expression of genes involved in different essential pathways: down-expression of genes involved in adhesion, motility, and biofilm formation, and up-regulation of genes involved in iron metabolism and stress response. Phenotypic assays confirmed the decrease of motility (swarming and swimming) and biofilm formation (early formation and formed biofilm). This study showed for the first time that propolis potentiated the effect of cranberry proanthocyanidins on adhesion, motility, biofilm formation, iron metabolism and stress response of UPEC. Cranberry+propolis treatment could represent an interesting new strategy to prevent recurrent UTI.

The Cranberry Extract Oximacro Exerts in vitro Virucidal Activity Against Influenza Virus by Interfering With Hemagglutinin.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Luganini A; Terlizzi ME; Catucci G; Gilardi G; Maffei ME; Gribaudo G.
Journal: 
Frontiers in Microbiology. 9:1826,
Abstract: 

The defense against influenza virus (IV) infections still poses a series of challenges. The current antiviral arsenal against influenza viruses is in fact limited; therefore, the development of new anti-influenza strategies effective against antigenically different viruses is an urgent priority. Bioactive compounds derived from medicinal plants and fruits may provide a natural source of candidates for such broad-spectrum antivirals. In this regard, cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) extracts on the basis of their recognized anti-adhesive activities against bacteria, may provide potential compounds able to prevent viral attachment to target cells. Nevertheless, only few studies have so far investigated the possible use of cranberry extracts as an antiviral tool. This study focuses on the suitability of a cranberry extract as a direct-acting anti-influenza compound. We show that the novel cranberry extract Oximacro inhibits influenza A and B viruses (IAV, IBV) replication in vitro because of its high content of A-type proanthocyanidins (PAC-A) dimers and trimers. Mechanistic studies revealed that Oximacro prevents attachment and entry of IAV and IBV into target cells and exerts a virucidal activity. Oximacro was observed to interact with the ectodomain of viral hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, thus suggesting the interference with HA functions and a consequent loss of infectivity of IV particles. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed a reduction in the intrinsic fluorescence of HA protein after incubation with purified dimeric PAC-A (PAC-A2), thus confirming a direct interaction between HA and Oximacro PAC-A2. In silico docking simulations further supported the in vitro results and indicated that among the different components of the Oximacro chemical profile, PAC-A2 exhibited the best binding propensity with an affinity below 10 nM. The role of PAC-A2 in the anti-IV activity of Oximacro was eventually confirmed by the observation that it prevented IAV and IVB replication and caused the loss of infectivity of IV particles, thus indicating PAC-A2 as the major active component of Oximacro. As a whole, these results suggest Oximacro as a potential candidate to create novel antiviral agents of natural origin for the prevention of IV infections.

In Vitro Activity of Vaccinium Macrocarpon (cranberry) on Urinary Tract Pathogens in Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infection.

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Bukhari S, Chiragh S, Tariq S, Alam MA, Wazir MS, Suleman M.
Journal: 
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 27(3):660-3.
Abstract: 

Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection in the community, mainly caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli). Due to its high incidence and recurrence, problems are faced in the treatment with antibiotics. Cranberry being herbal remedy have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections. This study was conducted to analyse in vitro activity of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on uropathogenic E. coli in uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Methods: In this laboratory based single group experimental study, anti-bacterial activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate on urinary tract E. coli was investigated, in vitro. Ninety-six culture positive cases of different uropathogens were identified. Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate at different concentrations was prepared in distilled water and put in wells punched in nutrient agar. E. coli isolates were inoculated on the plates and incubated at 37 oC for 24 hours. A citric acid solution of the same pH as that of Vaccinium macrocarpon was used and put in a well on the same plate to exclude the effect of pH. Results: A total of 35 isolates of E. coli were identified out of 96 culture positive specimens of urine and found sensitive to Vaccinium macrocarpon (p<0.000). Results revealed that Vaccinium macrocarpon has antibacterial effect against E. coli. Furthermore the antibacterial activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon has dose response relationship. Acidic nature of Vaccinium macrocarpon due to its pH is not contributory towards its antibacterial effect. Conclusion: Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate may be used in urinary tract infection caused by E. coli.

Anti-Adhesive Activity of Cranberry Phenolic Compounds and Their Microbial-Derived Metabolites against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Bladder Epithelial Cell Cultures

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
de Llano DG, Esteban-Fernandez A, Sanchez-Patan F, Martinlvarez PJ, Moreno-Arribas MV, Bartolome B
Journal: 
Int J Mol Sci 16(6):12119-30
Abstract: 

Cranberry consumption has shown prophylactic effects against urinary tract infections (UTI), although the mechanisms involved are not completely understood. In this paper, cranberry phenolic compounds and their potential microbial-derived metabolites (such as simple phenols and benzoic, phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids) were tested for their capacity to inhibit the adherence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) ATCC53503TM to T24 epithelial bladder cells. Catechol, benzoic acid, vanillic acid, phenylacetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid showed anti-adhesive activity against UPEC in a concentration-dependent manner from 100-500 micro M, whereas procyanidin A2, widely reported as an inhibitor of UPEC adherence on uroepithelium, was only statistically significant (p < 0.05) at 500 micro M (51.3% inhibition). The results proved for the first time the anti-adhesive activity of some cranberry-derived phenolic metabolites against UPEC in vitro, suggesting that their presence in the urine could reduce bacterial colonization and progression of UTI.

Cranberry Xyloglucan Structure and Inhibition of Escherichia coli Adhesion to Epithelial Cells.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Hotchkiss AT Jr, Nunez A, Strahan GD, Chau HK, White AK, Marais JP, Hom K, Vakkalanka MS, Di R, Yam KL, Khoo C
Journal: 
J Agric Food Sci 63(23):5622-33
Abstract: 

Cranberry juice has been recognized as a treatment for urinary tract infections on the basis of scientific reports of proanthocyanidin anti-adhesion activity against Escherichia coli as well as from folklore. Xyloglucan oligosaccharides were detected in cranberry juice and the residue remaining following commercial juice extraction that included pectinase maceration of the pulp. A novel xyloglucan was detected through tandem mass spectrometry analysis of an ion at m/z 1055 that was determined to be a branched, three hexose, four pentose oligosaccharide consistent with an arabino-xyloglucan structure. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis provided through-bond correlations for the alpha-l-Araf (1->2) alpha-d-Xylp (1->6) beta-d-Glcp sequence, proving the S-type cranberry xyloglucan structure. Cranberry xyloglucan-rich fractions inhibited the adhesion of E. coli CFT073 and UTI89 strains to T24 human bladder epithelial cells and that of E. coli O157:H7 to HT29 human colonic epithelial cells. SSGG xyloglucan oligosaccharides represent a new cranberry bioactive component with E. coli anti-adhesion activity and high affinity for type 1 fimbriae.

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