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Miscellaneous: Animal

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A polyphenol-rich cranberry extract protects against endogenous exposure to persistent organic pollutants during weight loss in mice

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Choi SoYun [Choi, S. Y. B.]; Varin, T. V.; St-Pierre, P.; Pilon, G.; Tremblay, A.; Marette, A..
Journal: 
Food and Chemical Toxicology; 2020. 146.
Abstract: 

The dramatic rise in the global occurrence of obesity and associated diseases calls for new strategies to promote weight loss. However, while the beneficial effects of weight loss are well known, rapid loss of fat mass can also lead to the endogenous release of liposoluble molecules with potential harmful effects, such as persistent organic pollutants (POP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a polyphenol-rich cranberry extract (CE) on POP release and their potential deleterious effects during weight loss of obese mice. C57BL/6 J mice were fed an obesogenic diet with or without a mixture of POP for 12 weeks and then changed to a low-fat diet to induce weight loss and endogenous POP release. The POP-exposed mice were then separated in two groups during weight loss, receiving either CE or the vehicle. Unexpectedly, despite the higher fat loss in the CE-treated group, the circulating levels of POP were not enhanced in these mice. Moreover, glucose homeostasis was further improved during CE-induced weight loss, as revealed by lower fasting glycemia and improved glucose tolerance as compared to vehicle-treated mice. Interestingly, the CE extract also induced changes in the gut microbiota after weight loss in POP-exposed mice, including blooming of Parvibacter, a member of the Coriobacteriaceae family which has been predicted to play a role in xenobiotic metabolism. Our data thus suggests that the gut microbiota can be targeted by polyphenol-rich extracts to protect from increased POP exposure and their detrimental metabolic effects during rapid weight loss

Berry polyphenols and fibers modulate distinct microbial metabolic functions and gut microbiota enterotype-like clustering in obese mice

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Rodriguez-Daza, M. C.; Roquim, M.; Dudonne, S.; Pilon, G.; Levy, E.; Marette, A.; Roy, D.; Desjardins, Y.
Journal: 
Frontiers in Microbiology; 2020. 11(August).
Abstract: 

Berries are rich in polyphenols and plant cell wall polysaccharides (fibers), including cellulose, hemicellulose, arabinans and arabino-xyloglucans rich pectin. Most of polyphenols and fibers are known to be poorly absorbed in the small intestine and reach the colon where they interact with the gut microbiota, conferring health benefits to the host. This study assessed the contribution of polyphenol-rich whole cranberry and blueberry fruit powders (CP and BP), and that of their fibrous fractions (CF and BF) on modulating the gut microbiota, the microbial functional profile and influencing metabolic disorders induced by high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet for 8 weeks. Lean mice-associated taxa, including Akkermansia muciniphila, Dubosiella newyorkensis, and Angelakisella, were selectively induced by diet supplementation with polyphenol-rich CP and BP. Fiber-rich CF also triggered polyphenols-degrading families Coriobacteriaceae and Eggerthellaceae. Diet supplementation with polyphenol-rich CP, but not with its fiber-rich CF, reduced fat mass depots, body weight and energy efficiency in HFHS-fed mice. However, CF reduced liver triglycerides in HFHS-fed mice. Importantly, polyphenol-rich CP-diet normalized microbial functions to a level comparable to that of Chow-fed controls. Using multivariate association modeling, taxa and predicted functions distinguishing an obese phenotype from healthy controls and berry-treated mice were identified. The enterotype-like clustering analysis underlined the link between a long-term diet intake and the functional stratification of the gut microbiota. The supplementation of a HFHS-diet with polyphenol-rich CP drove mice gut microbiota from Firmicutes/Ruminococcus enterotype into an enterotype linked to healthier host status, which is Prevotella/Akkermansiaceae. This study highlights the prebiotic role of polyphenols, and their contribution to the compositional and functional modulation of the gut microbiota, counteracting obesity..

Cranberry polyphenolic extract exhibits an antiobesity effect on high-fat diet-fed mice through increased thermogenesis

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Zhou Fang; Guo JieLong; Han Xue; Gao YunXiao; Chen QiMin; Huang WeiDong; Zhan JiCheng; Huang DeJian; You YiLin
Journal: 
Journal of Nutrition; 2020. 150(8):2131-2138.
Abstract: 

Background: Although polyphenol-rich cranberry extracts reportedly have an antiobesity effect, the exact reason for this remains unclear. Objectives: In light of the reported health benefits of the polyphenolic compounds in cranberry, we investigated the effects and mechanism of a cranberry polyphenolic extract (CPE) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice. Methods: The distributions of individual CPE compounds were characterized by HPLC fingerprinting. Male C57BL/6J mice (4 wk old) were fed for 16 wk normal diet (ND, 10% fat energy) or HFD (60% fat energy) with or without 0.75% CPE in drinking water (HFD + CPE). Body and adipose depot weights, indices of glucose metabolism, energy expenditure (EE), and expression of genes related to brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, and inguinal/epididymal white adipose tissue (iWAT/eWAT) browning were measured. Results: After 16 wk, the body weight was 22.5% lower in the CPE-treated mice than in the HFD group but remained 17.9% higher than in the ND group. CPE treatment significantly increased EE compared with that of the ND and HFD groups. The elevated EE was linked with BAT thermogenesis, and iWAT/eWAT browning, shown by the induction of thermogenic genes, especially uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), and browning-related genes, including Cd137, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (Tnfrsf9). The mRNA expression and abundance of uncoupling protein 1 in BAT of CPE-fed mice were 5.78 and 1.47 times higher than in the HFD group, and 0.61 and 1.12 times higher than in the ND group, respectively. Cd137 gene expression in iWAT and eWAT of CPE-fed mice were 2.35 and 3.13 times higher than in the HFD group, and 0.84 and 1.39 times higher than in the ND group, respectively. Conclusions: Dietary CPE reduced but did not normalize HFD-induced body weight gain in male C57BL/6J mice, possibly by affecting energy metabolism..

Dietary Cranberry Suppressed Colonic Inflammation and Alleviated Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Treated Mice.

Posted: 
March 16, 2020
Authors: 
Cai XiaoKun; Han YanHui; Gu Min; Song MingYue; Wu Xian; Li ZhengZe; Li Fang; Goulette, T.; Xiao Hang
Journal: 
Food and Function; 2019. 10(10):6331-6341
Abstract: 

Increased consumption of fruits may decrease the risk of chronic inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important etiological role in IBD. However, the mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of dietary cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) in the colon and its role on gut microbiota were unclear. In this study, we determined the anti-inflammatory efficacy of whole cranberry in a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, as well as its effects on the structure of gut microbiota. The results showed that dietary cranberry significantly decreased the severity of colitis in DSS-treated mice, evidenced by increased colon length, and decreased disease activity and histologic score of colitis in DSS-treated mice compared to the positive control group (p<0.05). Moreover, the colonic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1 beta , IL-6 and TNF- alpha ) were significantly reduced by cranberry supplementation (p<0.05). Analysis of the relative abundance of fecal microbiota in phylum and genus levels revealed that DSS treatment significantly altered the microbial structure of fecal microbiota in mice. alpha diversity was significantly decreased in the DSS group, compared to the healthy control group. But, cranberry treatment significantly improved DSS-induced decline in alpha -diversity. Moreover, cranberry treatment partially reversed the change of gut microbiota in colitic mice by increasing the abundance of potential beneficial bacteria, for example, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and decreasing the abundance of potential harmful bacteria, such as Sutterella and Bilophila. Overall, our results for the first time demonstrated that modification of gut microbiota by dietary whole cranberry might contribute to its inhibitory effects against the development of colitis in DSS-treated mice.

Pure Polyphenols and Cranberry Juice High in Anthocyanins Increase Antioxidant Capacity in Animal Organs.

Posted: 
March 16, 2020
Authors: 
Bariexca, T. Ezdebski, J. Redan, B. W. Vinson, J.
Journal: 
Foods; 2019. 8(8):340.
Abstract: 

Anthocyanins and the broader class of polyphenols are strong antioxidants in vitro. Polyphenols are one of the major antioxidants in plant foods, and the beverages derived from them. There is extensive evidence in the literature that polyphenols are beneficial to health. In order to be bioactive in vivo, they need to be bioavailable and be transported from the circulation to target organs. To date, there have been few studies testing the extent to which polyphenols and especially anthocyanins affect the antioxidant capacity of animal organs. In our first pilot study, we investigated how three pure polyphenols (the flavonoids quercetin, catechin and hesperetin) given to rats by intraperitoneal injection (49 to 63 mg/kg) affected their organ antioxidant capacity. This was followed by a subsequent study that injected one ml of 100% cranberry juice (high in anthocyanins) to hamsters. Antioxidant capacity of animal organs was determined by using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) colorimetric assay on methanolic extracts of select rat organs (i.e., liver, kidney, heart, prostate and brain) and in the hamster organs (i.e., liver, kidney, heart, bladder and brain). Overall the results showed that antioxidant capacity was significantly increased (p<0.05) in experimental vs. control organs. Analysis of organs by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from both animal studies provided evidence of polyphenol metabolites in the organ extracts. Taken together, this study provides data that the administration of anthocyanins and other polyphenols cause an increase in organ antioxidant capacity in two animal models. This result supports the growing evidence for the hypothesis that dietary polyphenols reduce the risk and extent of various chronic disease at the disease site.

Cranberry Attenuates Progression of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by High-Fat Diet in Mice.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Shimizu K; Ono M; Imoto A; Nagayama H; Tetsumura N; Terada T; Tomita K; Nishinaka T.
Journal: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 42(8):1295-1302
Abstract: 

Obesity is characterized by abnormal or excessive fat accumulation, which leads to the development of metabolic syndrome. Because oxidative stress is increased in obesity, antioxidants are regarded as suitable agents for preventing metabolic syndrome. Here, we examined the impact of cranberry, which contains various antioxidants, on metabolic profiles, including that during the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice. We observed that oxidative stress was diminished in mice that were fed HFD diets supplemented with 1 and 5% cranberry powder as compared with that in HFD-fed control mice. Notably, from 1 week after beginning the diets to the end of the study, the body weight of mice in the cranberry-treatment groups was significantly lower than that of mice in the HFD-fed control group; during the early treatment phase, cranberry suppressed the elevation of serum triglycerides; and adipocytes in the adipose tissues of cranberry-supplemented-HFD-fed mice were smaller than these cells in HFD-fed control mice. Lastly, we examined the effect of cranberry on NAFLD, which is one of the manifestations of metabolic syndrome in the liver. Histological analysis of the liver revealed that lipid-droplet formation and hepatocyte ballooning, which are key NAFLD characteristics, were both drastically decreased in cranberry-supplemented-HFD-fed mice relative to the levels in HFD-fed control mice. Our results suggest that cranberry ameliorates HFD-induced metabolic disturbances, particularly during the early treatment stage, and exhibits considerable potential for preventing the progression of NAFLD.

Peanut Protein-Polyphenol Aggregate Complexation Suppresses Allergic Sensitization to Peanut by Reducing Peanut-Specific IgE in C3H/HeJ Mice.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Bansode RR; Randolph PD; Plundrich NJ; Lila MA; Williams LL.
Journal: 
Food Chemistry. 299:125025
Abstract: 

Peanut allergy is usually lifelong and accidental exposure impose formidable risk. The aim of this study was to assess the capacity of peanut proteins complexed to polyphenol extracts to reduce allergic response in C3H/HeJ mice. Mice were sensitized to peanut flour followed by exposure to amino acid diets fortified with peanut protein-polyphenol aggregates of either with low (15%; w/w) or high (40%; w/w) complexation ratios of blueberry (BB-Low and BB-High) and cranberry (CB-Low and CB-High) extracts. Treatment groups on diets with high complexation ratios of blueberry and cranberry aggregates showed significant reduction in peanut specific plasma Immunoglobulin E (IgE). Western blot analysis of spleen lysates showed CD63 protein expression was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in blueberry and cranberry complexed peanut protein supplemented diet groups. Our results demonstrate for the first time that complexation of polyphenols to peanut flour can potentially lower plasma IgE of peanut-sensitized C3H/HeJ mice.

Effect of Vaccinium Macrocarpon on MK-801-Induced Psychosis in Mice.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Shukla D, Maheshwari RA, Patel K, Balaraman R, Sen AK.
Journal: 
Indian J Pharmacol. 2018 Sep-Oct;50(5):227-235. doi: 10.4103/ijp.IJP_74_17.
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES:This study was aimed to investigate the effect of aqueous cranberry extract (ACE) on MK-801-induced psychosis in mice.MATERIALS AND METHODS:MK-801-treated mice were administered ACE (1 and 2 g/kg, p.o.) for 14 days. Various behavioral parameters and neurochemical estimations such as dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, and glycine as well as markers of oxidative stress such as nitrite levels were measured.RESULTS:Psychosis-induced mice showed a significant elevation of immobility time in forced swim test, locomotor activity, and reduction in time of permanency in rota-rod test, escape latency time in Cook's pole test while treatment with ACE showed a significant alteration in above-mentioned behavioral parameters in MK-801-induced psychosis. Moreover, MK-801-induced psychosis in the mice showed a significant increase in DA, 5-HT, and NA levels and decrease in GABA, glutamate, and glycine levels in the brain. In contrast, treatment with ACE at both doses remarkably altered the neurochemical parameters. In addition, ACE-treated mice showed a substantial reduction in acetylcholinesterase, D-amino acid oxidase enzyme activity, and nitrite levels which were elevated by the administration of MK-801.CONCLUSIONS:Treatment with ACE once for 14 days (1 and 2 g/kg) significantly ameliorated the behavioral symptoms in experimentally induced psychosis by virtue of neuromodulation and decreased oxidative stress.

The Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) Extract Treatment Improves Triglyceridemia, Liver Cholesterol, Liver Steatosis, Oxidative Damage and Corticosteronemia in Rats Rendered Obese by High Fat Diet.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Peixoto TC; Moura EG; de Oliveira E; Soares PN; Guarda DS; Bernardino DN; Ai XX; Rodrigues VDST; de Souza GR; da Silva AJR; Figueiredo MS; Manhaes AC; Lisboa PC.
Journal: 
European Journal of Nutrition. 57(5):1829-1844,
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: Obese individuals have higher production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative damage. We hypothesize that cranberry extract (CE) can improve this dysfunction in HFD-induced obesity in rats since it has an important antioxidant activity. Here, we evaluated the effects of CE in food intake, adiposity, biochemical and hormonal parameters, lipogenic and adipogenic factors, hepatic morphology and oxidative balance in a HFD model. METHODS: At postnatal day 120 (PN120), male Wistar rats were assigned into two groups: (1) SD (n = 36) fed with a standard diet and (2) HFD (n = 36), fed with a diet containing 44.5% (35.2% from lard) energy from fat. At PN150, 12 animals from SD and HFD groups were killed while the others were subdivided into four groups (n = 12/group): animals that received 200 mg/kg cranberry extract (SD CE, HFD CE) gavage/daily/30 days or water (SD, HFD). At PN180, animals were killed. RESULTS: HFD group showed higher body mass and visceral fat, hypercorticosteronemia, higher liver glucocorticoid sensitivity, cholesterol and triglyceride contents and microsteatosis. Also, HFD group had higher lipid peroxidation (plasma and tissues) and higher protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) compared to SD group. HFD CE group showed lower body mass gain, hypotrygliceridemia, hypocorticosteronemia, and lower hepatic cholesterol and fatty acid synthase contents. HFD CE group displayed lower lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) and accumulation of liver fat compared to HFD group. CONCLUSION: Although adiposity was not completely reversed, cranberry extract improved the metabolic profile and reduced oxidative damage and steatosis in HFD-fed rats, which suggests that it can help manage obesity-related disorders.

A Polyphenol-Rich Cranberry Extract Reverses Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis Independently of Body Weight Loss.

Posted: 
April 4, 2018
Authors: 
Anhe FF; Nachbar RT; Varin TV; Vilela V; Dudonne S; Pilon G; Fournier M; Lecours MA; Desjardins Y; Roy D; Levy E; Marette A.
Journal: 
Molecular Metabolism. 6(12):1563-1573
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported that polyphenol-rich extracts from various sources can prevent obesity and associated gastro-hepatic and metabolic disorders in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. However, whether such extracts can reverse obesity-linked metabolic alterations remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential of a polyphenol-rich extract from cranberry (CE) to reverse obesity and associated metabolic disorders in DIO-mice. METHODS: Mice were pre-fed either a Chow or a High Fat-High Sucrose (HFHS) diet for 13 weeks to induce obesity and then treated either with CE (200mg/kg, Chow+CE, HFHS+CE) or vehicle (Chow, HFHS) for 8 additional weeks. RESULTS: CE did not reverse weight gain or fat mass accretion in Chow- or HFHS-fed mice. However, HFHS+CE fully reversed hepatic steatosis and this was linked to upregulation of genes involved in lipid catabolism (e.g., PPARalpha) and downregulation of several pro-inflammatory genes (eg, COX2, TNFalpha) in the liver. These findings were associated with improved glucose tolerance and normalization of insulin sensitivity in HFHS+CE mice. The gut microbiota of HFHS+CE mice was characterized by lower Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio and a drastic expansion of Akkermansia muciniphila and, to a lesser extent, of Barnesiella spp, as compared to HFHS controls. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings demonstrate that CE, without impacting body weight or adiposity, can fully reverse HFHS diet-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis while triggering A. muciniphila blooming in the gut microbiota, thus underscoring the gut-liver axis as a primary target of cranberry polyphenols.

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